Rye is one of the most important food crops in Russia; it goes to feed livestock and is used as human food (rye is used to produce flour, starch, and malt). Our country ranks first in the world in the collection of rye. The main cultivation areas for this crop are the Volga region (the Republic of Tatarstan, Samara and Ulyanovsk region), the Urals district (the Republic of Udmurtia and the Perm region), as well as the Central and Volga-Vyatka districts.
Rye is less demanding on natural conditions than wheat, resistant to many types of pests and pathogens. Although sowing rye has 39 varieties, only rye is grown in our country. Winter rye easily tolerates low temperatures up to -35 degrees, so winter culture is more widespread on the territory of Russia than spring, which is cultivated in some areas of Buryatia and Yakutia. We will consider various aspects of the business related to the cultivation of winter rye.
The cost of renting agricultural land in different regions of Russia varies quite significantly. The price per hectare depends on the total area of leased land, the proximity of the road, the presence or absence of communications, water, special equipment and can be as much as 500 rubles, or several thousand rubles.
As we have already said, rye can easily grow on the soil that is not suitable for cultivating wheat. The best predecessors of rye are lupine-oat mixes, perennial herbs, early ripe potatoes, corn for silage, flax, and peas and wheat. Rye can produce crops for two years in one place. It is not recommended to plant rye after perennial legumes, since because of them the soil is very saturated with nitrogen, which is detrimental to rye.
3-4 weeks before sowing, plowing is carried out. If it is planned to sow rye after wheat, then a plow with skimmers is used; after potatoes, flax, peas, the land is cultivated by plane cutters; after perennial grasses and corn, the field is treated with disc harrows. The average cost of plowing a hectare of land is 700-1000 rubles.
Winter rye seeds can be purchased online for about 10 rubles per kilogram. A big mistake of modern agronomists is sowing with freshly harvested seeds. Unclaimed seed is not yet ready for germination, so the rye yield is reduced to 10 centners per hectare, although it can be several times more.
Consider the popular varieties of rye. Variety "Tatarskaya 1" refers to mid-season, resistant to lodging and frost, has good baking qualities, cultivated on poor, infertile soils. Mid-season variety "Saratovskaya 7" is characterized by high productivity, drought tolerance and good technological and baking properties of grain, grows best in the Volga region. Variety "Bezenchukskaya 87" also refers to mid-season, resistant to lodging, has excellent baking qualities, is included in the state register for the Central, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Middle Volga, Ural regions. The Novozybkovskaya M-4 variety is frost-resistant, yields a high yield, grows well on sandy soils, but lies with excess moisture. The variety "Pulman yellow-grain" is intended for cultivation in the Kursk region, the percentage of lodging and shedding is much lower than in other varieties.
Before sowing, the seeds must be trained to prevent infection with stem smut and snow mold. For this, foundationazole and TMTD are used. Dates of wheat sowing in the non-chernozem zone are August 5–25, in the central chernozem zone and southeastern regions August 15 – September 1, and in the southern regions September 25 – October 10.
Rates of sowing rye per hectare are as follows: in the Central Black Earth band - 5-6 million seeds, in the Non-Chernozem zone - 6-7 million seeds, in the Volga region - 4-6 million seeds, in the Urals and Siberia - 6-7 million seeds. 1000 seeds weigh 30-40 grams depending on the variety. Consequently, from 150 to 280 kilograms of seeds will be consumed per hectare of area.
There are several ways of sowing rye: normal, in pairs, cross, narrow-charge. If sowing rye in pairs, then the sowing rate rises by 15-20 percent, and if narrow-wedge or cross methods are used, then the rate should be increased by 10-15 percent.
Immediately after sowing, it is recommended to carry out rolling, this guarantees a better wintering. In early spring, crops should be harrowed. Fundazole is used for root rot, herbicides are used for weeds, although rye is resistant to weeds, and weed treatment is rarely required. 10-12 days after germination, the crops are sprayed with a solution of camaposan M to prevent lodging.
Harvesting rye begins in the middle of the wax ripeness of the grain, when the grain is still firmly held on the spike and does not sprinkle, since at the end of the wax ripeness the flow of dry substances into the grain stops, and when fully ripened, significant losses cannot be avoided, because the grain is prone to sprinkling.
Cleaning is carried out in a separate way. First use the swather, and then the combine. The collected grain is cleaned, sorted, and dried if necessary. The cost of a mounted swather starts from 25 thousand rubles. A combine harvester can be bought for 450 thousand rubles, the cost of a new modern combine is more than 2 million rubles. The Finnish mobile grain dryer costs about 2.5 million rubles.
The average cost of cultivating rye per hectare of land is from 5, 000 rubles. The average yield of rye is 20 centners per hectare, with good agricultural technology it can increase to 50 centners. When selling grain at a price of 5000 rubles per ton, net profit will be about 5000 rubles per hectare.
Rye is a part of various mixed feeds; it is not inferior to wheat in terms of nutrient content, therefore producers of animal feed are one of the options for selling rye. When cultivating varieties with high baking properties, it is advisable to cooperate with enterprises producing rye flour. In addition, rye is used as organic fertilizer on farms.