A very important place in agriculture is the cultivation of fruit trees. Fruits serve as food for people, are used in many industries and go to livestock feed. But in order to deal with fruit trees, you need to be patient, because trees begin to bear fruit only after a few years of their life. Thus, one does not have to count on making a profit in the very first months of work; growing fruit trees implies engaging in some other farming or business. Therefore, it is best when already an experienced farmer who grows many plants, decided to get extra income and plant a garden of certain trees. In a few years, this will become a good source of income, but for things to go smoothly, you should decide on the crops from the very beginning and arrange the cultivation of fruits on your own site. As you know, it will turn out to grow fruit trees on your own plot or, in the worst case, on a plot taken under a lease for a very long time and with permission from the owner of the plot to plant trees.
Therefore, it is assumed that there is a plot of one hectare in size that is free from crops of grain, melons and other crops and can be completely set aside for the garden. The cost of land can vary greatly depending on the region and the distance from the settlements. But it is quite possible to find an inexpensive plot (within 500 thousand rubles), which will be located if not in a small village, then at least in close proximity to it. Although, of course, those who have already built their own house and have experience in farming are engaged in the garden.
To legalize their activities, it is necessary to register the subject of entrepreneurial activity, while the form of a legal entity and an individual entrepreneur are suitable, but most preferably peasant-farm farming. By law, this form is actually equated to an individual entrepreneur, it also has the ability to make tax deductions according to a simplified taxation system, but at the same time, the peasant farm still involves the union of several persons. It is optimal to indicate the code (OKPD 2) 01.25 The fruits of other fruit trees, shrubs and nuts, it is universal for all fruit trees, except grapes. Thus, it is possible to grow any fruit trees without the need for additional reporting, changes in registration documents in the case of a small re-profiling of the economy (change of one crop to another). But when contacting the Phytosanitary Surveillance Service (Rosselkhoznadzor), you need to find out all the requirements for fruit tree farmers. Depending on the culture and region, any restrictions may be established or there may be features from a legal point of view, and all this is better taken into account so that there are no problems during a sudden check by the state structure.
After solving all legal issues, you can begin to grow fruits. Some people find it more convenient to engage in only one culture, doing it entirely and giving it maximum strength, while other farmers find it more pleasant to see a garden filled with various types of plants. The main obstacle to the realization of a farmer’s dream is the possibility of a particular plant growing in the climatic conditions of the region. It is important not only to provide all the conditions for the tree to take root, but also that it begins to bear fruit well. There are many more factors that influence which plants can be cultivated.
Apple tree. It is the most famous fruit tree, the cultivated species is Mālus domestica, which is called the apple tree. There are a huge number of apple varieties, so they are grown everywhere in almost the entire territory of the country except for very cold regions. The fruit of the apple tree is an apple, this is the name of not only the fruit specific to this plant, but also the name of the type of false fruit. That is, from a botanical point of view, an apple can only be called a fruit conditionally. Varieties of apple trees can produce crops at almost different times of the year (different varieties bear fruit from summer to late autumn), but in order to get fruits in winter, you need to equip greenhouses, which is difficult to make for trees. Some varieties of apple trees begin to bear fruit a year after planting, which significantly reduces the payback period of the entire project.
Apples can almost always be sold; small and apparently unappealing apples are sold at a low price in large quantities either to livestock farms or to companies producing juices and mashed potatoes, that is, processing these fruits. Large and marketable apples can be sold independently on the market or to find wholesale buyers who will be engaged in the resale of apples in stores. You can do it yourself by looking for outlets in which apples will be sold at retail; this will remove one intermediary and earn a little more money.
Apple trees grow well after such predecessors as: sugar beets, corn, crops. Experienced gardeners recommend preparing the soil for growing apples on it in two years. On one hectare, you can place up to 300 small trees, while it is important to properly plan the territory so that the trees do not subsequently interfere with each other. The cost of one apple tree seedling is 500 rubles, so 150 thousand rubles will be needed for the garden. The average yield of an apple tree per hectare is 15 tons, while it can vary greatly depending on the conditions of the courtship and weather conditions. Depending on the variety, a kilogram of apples can cost both 10 rubles and 100, so if you take the average price of 30 rubles, then one crop will bring 450 thousand rubles. This is a very, very good indicator, which can only be achieved by experienced agronomists. Apples are perhaps the most common and easiest fruit crop to implement, it is relatively easy to deal with it due to the large number of varieties specially developed for each region and local conditions.
Pear. Like an apple, it belongs to the Rosaceӕ family and is its closest relative. The genus of plants that is edible and cultivated by people is Pýrus. Pears are slightly less popular with people than apples, but they are still consumed in large quantities. There are also many varieties of them, which allows you to deal with pears in relatively cold regions of the country. However, in the northern regions they are almost not grown. Depending on the variety, it can be either a strong, full-fledged tree, or (which is most common) a low tree, more similar to a bush with sprawling branches, strewn with fruits. This is what a cultivated pear looks like. Since the type of fruit of a pear and an apple practically coincides, people use these crops for almost the same needs, then there are no implementation features in the case of a pear. Just need to rely on a slightly lower demand.
The cost of seedlings is also about 500 rubles for the future tree. The seedlings themselves can be even a little more if dwarf plants are selected, but in general it’s worth counting on the same amount of 150 thousand rubles to buy seedlings. The average yield of a pear is about 3 tons per hectare, and the price of these heavy fruits is on average about 50 rubles per kilogram. Thus, according to the results of the sale, you can earn about 150 thousand rubles, which in the first year will not even cover all the costs of organizing a pear garden. You might think that pearing is not so profitable, but you need to remember about fluctuations in demand, and sometimes pear fruits may be in price. Elite varieties of pears can also exceed the mark of the price tag of one hundred rubles per kilogram; in general, pears are slightly more expensive than apples. Therefore, it is possible to allocate a certain area for a pear garden, since this plant is relatively easy to grow, and it has a lot of varieties.
Cherry plum. Together with blackthorn it is the progenitor of ordinary plums. Cherry plum was traditionally cultivated in the Caucasus Mountains, but in the twentieth century they developed varieties that can grow in more northern latitudes. The home view for growing is Prúnus cerasiféra, this plant is very good at adapting to many types of soil, but is very sensitive to lower temperatures. Varieties of winter cherry plum are bred for the northern regions, which retain all the positive properties of this plant (high yield, early maturity) in combination with good indicators of frost resistance.
The cost of one cherry seedlings is also an average of 500 rubles, but much more plants can fit on one hectare than in the case of pears or apples. So, some experiments among horticultural farms showed the possibility of growing 8 thousand small trees on one hectare. However, there is no point in planting more than 500 trees per hectare, because all that is more is intensive gardening with the expectation of short-term profit. Thus, for seedlings 250 thousand rubles will be required.
Cherry plum can be a very productive crop, give up to 300 kilograms of fruit from one tree, that is, ideally you can collect about 150 tons of crops from one hectare of plantings. But usually the yield is much lower and is 25 tons per hectare. Wholesale cherry plum can be sold at about 20 rubles per kilogram, so the sale of 25 tons will bring the gardener 500 thousand rubles of income. Just keep in mind that cherry plum is not bought with the same enthusiasm as the same apples, so in the case of retail sales there is a chance not to sell a significant part of the crop, and therefore it is much easier to work with resellers.
Plum. The well-known fruit is blue, although plums can have other shades. Cultivated species - Prúnus doméstica, grows in many regions of this country. It copes with winter a little better, therefore it is grown farther north than cherry plum. Plum fruits are usually slightly larger. Plum is a honey plant, so it can be grown with its own apiary. The plant is somewhat more whimsical than cherry plum, but with proper care it can also give good yield indicators. According to indicators of the cost of seedlings, productivity, the number of tree stands is fully approaching cherry plum, only the plum fruits are a little more expensive. Everything, of course, depends on the variety, but the average price here is about 40 rubles per kilogram. It turns out that for 25 tons of the crop you can already get 1 million rubles, however, this is possible in really good years.
Quince. It is a fruit tree grown mainly in the Caucasus. In Russia, it is cultivated in the southwestern regions of the country. Only one species of Cydonia oblōnga is bred by humans. Quince is not a very popular culture among the population, since its fruits are rarely eaten because of very mediocre taste. But at the same time, many varieties of sweets are made from quince, and this fruit is used in many food industries. Some farmers specifically dry quince and sell it in this form. Due to its lesser popularity than other cultures, quince seedlings can be bought for only 200 rubles per piece. In the garden there can be about 400 trees of this plant, while each adult tree can produce up to 50 kilograms of crop. And the average yield per hectare is 20 tons. Thus, with an average price of 30 rubles per kilogram, 600 thousand rubles is obtained from the sale of all fruits. And this is provided that the seedlings will cost only 80 thousand rubles. But to engage in this culture in Russia is possible only in some regions, on the rest of the territory, the trees either will not take root or will not produce a good harvest.
But in order to achieve a good harvest, you need to carefully study all the information about the selected type of plants and about the varieties that will be grown. It is also necessary to take into account the fact that fruit trees do not always begin to produce crops immediately. The minimum period is one to two years, for this special varieties are developed that are classified as early. But an ordinary tree begins to bear fruit only 8–9 years after planting, which makes a long-term fruit growing business. As already mentioned, it is good for them to engage in multidisciplinary farms and where cultivation of annual plants has already been established, they become good predecessors for trees.
Organizing your own apiary will also be a good business idea, since many fruit trees, although they are self-pollinated, significantly increase their productivity in the presence of pollinating insects. For apiary, fruit trees are good because they allow you to increase the amount of honey by 10-20 kilograms per hectare of tree stands. To get a large number of fruits from each tree, you need to choose the right fertilizers and fertilizing for plants, especially for young seedlings. All this is selected directly for each culture separately, there cannot be any universal fertilizer here.
The garden itself is designed for several decades, for example, the life of an apple tree or pear is about 50 years, but plum and cherry plum live almost 2 times less. Best of all, the tree bears fruit from 10 to 15 years of life, in the future its yield decreases. Dead trees can be planted on wood, having previously prepared a replacement for them in the form of young seedlings. Pear wood is especially valuable, all other types of wood from the above are not so often used on the farm. Therefore, old trees can be sold for wood, receiving additional profit from a dead plant.
In order to sell the harvest, you need to purchase transport equipment. A passenger car with a trailer, a small van, or even a tractor with a trailer for transporting a large number of fruits may be suitable for this. All equipment can be leased under relatively good conditions that are offered to farmers. If harvesting is not possible on your own, then you can attract people from the nearest small settlements, although many fruit trees are harvested as the fruits ripen, and one family can sometimes cope with this. But, of course, the fruit should not fall from the tree, and then it is more advisable to attract outside power. It is also important to ennoble the garden, first of all, to conduct a system of automatic watering of trees, because such huge areas are unlikely to be able to be cultivated by yourself in one day. And in case of drought, this may be required.
To summarize, the cultivation of fruit trees is an entrepreneurship in the field of agriculture with a sufficiently long payback period of up to 10 years. It all depends on the type of tree, and in other cases it is possible to collect so many fruits the next year after planting that selling them will cover expenses, but this rarely happens. It is best to engage in a multidisciplinary economy, even a garden can be divided into parts with different plants. In the case of plums and cherry plums, it’s nice to plant several varieties - they will be cross-pollinated, which will allow you to get unique and good fruits. The profitability of such an initiative strongly depends on the yield directly, which forces the farmer to take care of his plants and in every way support their growth and fruitfulness.