Agriculture: rabbit farm

* The calculations use the average data for the World

As you know, “a rabbit is not just valuable fur” ... A business related to raising and raising rabbits is considered to be quickly paid back, profitable and suitable even for beginner farmers who do not have much experience in this field (in general, the agricultural business is considered difficult and risky for inexperienced entrepreneurs). First of all, the meat of these animals is valued, which is rightly called diet because of its low content of fat and cholesterol. Rabbit meat is superior in taste to meat of other animals, while being nutritious and easily digestible. For comparison, rabbit meat is absorbed by the human body by 90%, while pork and beef are only 65%. In terms of protein content and usefulness, rabbit meat is equated to chicken meat. Its calorie content is 162 kcal per 100 grams.

So, the advantages of rabbit meat over other types of meat are obvious. It is recommended for children and adults who care about their health and shape. In addition, the main products of rabbit breeding also include rabbit skin, which is used for the manufacture of products in the leather industry, as well as fluff used in knitting and felt production. Rabbit fur has a special softness and wear resistance, perfectly retains heat and has an attractive appearance. Skins of rabbits of some breeds are used in their natural form without additional coloring and haircuts. Of course, the production and marketing of rabbit meat is the main source of profit for such a farm, but additional directions can significantly increase its profitability.

Additional advantages of such a business are associated with relatively small investments in its organization. For breeding rabbits there is no need for large areas of land. These animals are kept on small farms (for example, a farm with a productivity of up to 1000 rabbits per year will require less than one hundred square meters of land), on personal plots, cottages and even on the balconies of multi-storey buildings. Beginner farmers are also attracted by the low level of competition in this market. “Indirect competitors”, which could include other farms and livestock complexes, in fact, do not compete with rabbit producers because of the special properties of the latter.

We choose the legal form

If you do not consider rabbit breeding as a hobby, but as a full-fledged and promising business, then you need to start its organization by choosing the appropriate form of its management. In this case, there are only two options - to register as an individual entrepreneur (IP) or to register a peasant farm (peasant farm). Many experts consider the IP form the most optimal if you plan to open a small rabbit farm. As a form of taxation, it is best to give preference to the Unified Agricultural Tax - a single agricultural tax that replaces other forms of taxation and has the lowest possible tax rate (6%).

Pay attention to a number of innovations. So, for example, from the beginning of 2014, instead of OKATO, it is necessary to indicate OKTMO in the agricultural declaration. In 2013, the procedure for transferring to the Unified Agricultural Taxes was changed, which is important for those who are already conducting business and would like to change the form of their taxation. The accounting of income and expenses at the Unified Social Taxation is carried out on a cash basis, and tax accounting for the purpose of calculating the Unified Social Tax is carried out in the IP in the book of income and expenses of individual entrepreneurs using the Unified Social Tax.

In addition, you will need to receive a number of additional documents for organizing a rabbit farm, which include a certificate, a declaration of conformity GOST R and a phytosanitary certificate. These papers will be required for marketing your products to grocery stores, super- and hypermarkets. Before starting paperwork, it is best to contact your regional Rosselkhoznadzor branch and clarify the list of required documents, since the rules that are set for the procedure for selling agricultural products through distribution networks often undergo changes.

The form of peasant farm, in general, is similar to the form of PI, but has one important difference. The structure of such a farm may include citizens who jointly own the property of the enterprise and have the right to carry out any economic activity. Unlike such forms as LLC, KFH does not have a memorandum of association, statutory documents and company name. You can register it in your name, as is the case with IP, and manage your farm yourself. The main advantage of peasant farms in comparison with individual entrepreneurs is the possibility of obtaining state support in the form of various tax benefits and subsidies. On the one hand, this is certainly true for beginner farmers. And on the other hand, as the experience of other entrepreneurs shows, it is quite difficult to get the “bonuses” due even in the presence of peasant farms. If you do not have useful acquaintances in the district administration, then it is hardly worth counting on obtaining preferential loans.

There is another option for registering your farm as a personal subsidiary farm (LPH). If you own or lease a piece of land in a summer house partnership, then you are already the owner of private household plots. This fact can be confirmed by taking a certificate from local authorities. Unlike private entrepreneurs or peasant farms, no personal taxes are levied on private farms. However, on the other hand, options for marketing your products are very limited. For example, you will not be able to deliver rabbit meat to grocery stores and supermarkets, to some catering establishments that place high demands on the products they purchase. So, by registering your farm as a private household enterprise and issuing certain documents, you can only sell meat to resellers or on your own, renting a point on the grocery market. The list of necessary documents for such trade includes a certificate from a veterinary laboratory confirming that the rabbits at the time of slaughter were healthy and vaccinated, and the slaughter itself was carried out in compliance with all the rules; a sanitary book issued in your name, a medical book on the vehicle used to transport rabbit meat; a certificate from the veterinary laboratory about checking the quality of rabbit meat. The exact list of required documents can be found at your local veterinary station. It may vary depending on the region.

For a rabbit farm, select OKVED A. "Breeding rabbits and fur animals in the farm."

Subtleties of rabbit breeding

No special permissions are required to open a rabbit farm. The main thing is that you own or lease a piece of land located outside the city on an elevated or level ground with a slight slope (lowlands and other places with high humidity are not suitable for keeping rabbits). Of course, it is better if this site will belong to you. In this case, you can prepare a place for rabbitry, fill it with concrete or fill it with gravel. If possible, it is advisable to provide also a water drainage system.

In the specialized literature, as well as on numerous thematic sites, you can find detailed descriptions of the various options for organizing rabbit farms for any budget and production volume. But with a limited area and focus on the sale of meat (and, consequently, the maximum increase in the "productivity" of your economy), experts advise giving preference to the so-called shedovaya system. Sheda content allows even on a mini-farm scale to optimize as much as possible all technologies of the rabbit breeding process, to mechanize labor-intensive operations such as manure removal, feeding and watering animals, feeding hay to feeders, etc., which helps to increase the productivity of your farm at least twice (by compared to other common rabbit keeping systems). True, such a system has its drawbacks, associated primarily with the complexity of the construction of sheds, as well as with the convenience of access to rabbit cages for their maintenance. On the other hand, these shortcomings are compensated by the extreme simplicity of the design, its low cost and availability of materials used for its construction.

The shed system is a canopy under which cells are placed in one or two tiers (if necessary, they can be placed in several rows). This design is similar to a rectangular barn and can significantly save on rabbitry area. In addition, the location of the cells in this way protects animals from adverse weather conditions - rain, wind or the scorching sun. The latter, by the way, is extremely unfavorably reflected in the quality of rabbit fur, which simply burns out under the influence of direct sunlight.

The shed itself is two cell batteries, covered with a canopy on top. In a shed, you can place, for example, a total of up to 72 cages, 32 of which will contain females, and the rest - males and young rabbits. The standard width of the shed is three meters. The length is determined by the area of ​​rabbitry and the number of animals. The average length of a shed on a mini-farm is about ten meters. Moreover, it is organized as follows: rabbit cages of 1-3 tiers are installed on both sides of the shed (it is more rational, of course, to use three tiers), between them there is a passage 1.5 meters wide. If the shed is installed directly on the ground, it is recommended to close the space under the lower tier with boards or, better still, concrete with a slope towards the cells.

Cells installed in a shed are recommended to be made two-section. Such a cage includes a feeding trough and a nesting compartment for females and young animals and is about 1 meter long and half a meter wide.

In addition to the cages themselves, premises will also be required for storing tools and building materials, a feed storage and an equipped porch for trucks. The total area of ​​the shed will be from 360 square meters. meters, and the area of ​​the feed workshop with an entrance - from 50 square meters. meters. Add to this a room for storing equipment (plus 50 sq. Meters), a room for slaughter and refrigeration equipment (plus 50 sq. Meters), waste containers (about 30 sq. Meters) and space for passage and passage. In the feed storage, as the name implies, stocks of various types of feed will be stored. It is recommended to have a supply of at least 2-3 months. On large rabbit farms, feed plants are equipped with special equipment - a granulator and a grain mill. For a small farm, you can find, for example, granulator models with a capacity of about 200 kg per hour, costing from 250 thousand rubles (the cost of used equipment). An extruder granulator is even better, but it costs significantly more. These investments are, at first glance, too impressive for a mini-farm, but often quite justified, since with a granulator and a grain mill you can significantly save on the purchase of ready-made compound feeds by making them yourself.

Allocate a separate place for storage of stock and various materials. You will also need a room for slaughtering animals, which is equipped with a bloodstream and a special furnace for burning offal. Cut rabbit carcasses are packed and stacked in freezers.

The manure collector is a cesspool from a depth of three meters, which is located at the farthest end of the site, away from the slaughterhouse and the place of keeping rabbits. The walls of the pit are concreted, and from above it is closed by a canopy.

In one standard size shed, you can grow over 450 young animals. Rabbits are very reproductive. On average, from one ordinary rabbit, they get 6-9 rabbits per one bunny. From the most prolific - up to 12-14 rabbits. However, 18 rabbits from a rabbit are also not the limit. Thus, for breeding you will need a total of twenty heads of broodstock, which will include 18 rabbits and two males. Experts recommend placing animals in the following way: in the upper row of the right or left cell battery, nine cells with nine females and one cage for the male. The same arrangement of cells for the second row of the battery. Additional cells (about 45-50 pieces) will be required to resettle the young.

When choosing rabbits for your mini-farm, give preference to meat breeds. First of all, these are New Zealand white, New Zealand red and California breeds. There are also meat-hide (that is, more "universal") breeds, but purely meat ones gain weight much faster and at the age of five months they weigh from 4 to 5 kg. The slaughter yield of meat in rabbits of meat breeds is 5-10% higher than that of meat-animal animals. At the same time, skins of purely meat rabbits are also of value. California rabbit brings and feeds about 12 rabbits, and New Zealand breeds - 9-10 cubs. Carefully consider the choice of animals for breeding. Do not buy them in bird markets. The best option is to visit specialized agricultural exhibitions or go directly to suppliers of such breeding animals that meet all breed standards and whose health you can be sure of.

Some farmers rely not on quality, but on productivity. Most authors of rabbit breeding guides advise to breed females in late February - early March. In this case, the rabbits are born in late March - early April, matured with the female for up to 45 days, after which the rabbit is allowed to mate again, matured with the rabbits for another two weeks, and then the young animals are put in a separate cage. What are the advantages of such a scheme? Although the female will rabbit only three times a year, bringing about 20-25 rabbits per year, her offspring will be stronger and healthier, including due to the lengthening of the lactation period up to two months. If necessary, one more winter okrol can be obtained from the females, but for this it is necessary to equip the nesting compartment. For this, a heater (a sheet of polystyrene or polystyrene) is laid under the bottom of the nest, and the nest is covered with a thick layer of hay, leaving a small space for the rabbit to pass. With an increase in spouts to four per year, you can raise up to 400-plus rabbits in one shed.

However, even with excellent genetic data that determine the fecundity of the animal, proper care is of great importance. This indicator is directly affected by underfeeding (especially on the 8-10th day of pregnancy of females) and closely related mating. The younger the rabbit, the higher the likelihood of multiple fertility.

As for nutrition, experienced rabbit breeders advise to stick to a dry diet, preferring not succulent feeds (which, contrary to popular belief, make up no more than 20%), but compound feeds in combination with hay or dried grass (depending on the season). Fresh vegetables and green grass alone, unlike dry feeds, do not contain a balanced set of all trace elements necessary for the growth of animals. In addition, they have a high level of humidity, which, as mentioned above, is bad for rabbitry. Fresh feed is recommended to be introduced into the diet only lactating rabbits, and then in a limited quantity and of the highest quality.

How much will we spend and how much will we earn?

We calculate the main costs and possible income from your rabbit farm. The cost of purchasing rabbits depends on the number and age of the animals. So, for example, a male of young New Zealand red breed at the age of three months can be purchased for 600 rubles. and higher, and four-month-old males are already sold at a price of 800 r. Females are significantly more expensive - an average of 1000-1500 rubles, depending on age and breed. Prices are quoted for animals bred and with all the necessary documents and vaccinations.

Let's calculate the content of one rabbit with a litter of twenty rabbits, followed by rearing of young stock for three months. The total feed consumption for such a family will be about 300 kg with a cost of 1 kg of feed about 9-10 rubles (plus vitamins, fresh feed, etc.). If there is a granulator and a grain mill, the cost of feed will be at least two times lower, but you will have to spend money on equipment. Experienced rabbit breeders are advised to purchase grain and grain waste in small, or even better, bulk quantities. Thus, equipment and keeping a shed with a capacity of 15 rabbits will require 55 thousand rubles, taking into account the cost of hay (which can, however, be procured independently) and veterinary care of animals.

To calculate profit, take into account the average weight of one rabbit carcass (2 kg) and wholesale prices for rabbit meat (250 rubles per kg). Thus, from the sale of 400 rabbit carcasses you can gain 200 thousand rubles. Net profit minus feed, transportation and other expenses will be about 100-120 thousand rubles. Accordingly, the more sheds will be located on your site, the higher your profit will be. Perhaps 110 thousand rubles a year, the proceeds from the sale of 800 kg, and do not amaze the imagination of novice entrepreneurs. But, firstly, with ten Sheds you will gain about 1 million rubles, which is already not bad. And secondly, you can increase the profitability of your farm by selling not only meat, but also rabbit skins. However, there is one catch: in our country, the furrier industry is extremely poorly developed. There are no problems to find buyers for meat: it is willingly bought by individual stores and retail chains, owners of meat retail outlets in food markets, cafes and restaurants, and final consumers. But with those wishing to purchase rabbit skins on an industrial scale, things are not so good. In addition, it will be necessary to think over who will be engaged in dressing skins, organizing their sales, working with manufacturers of fur products - factories and ateliers. The cost of the skins depends on several factors, the main of which is the quality of the material. Small rabbit meat producers tend to choose the easiest way to market “side production results”. They carry out primary processing of skins or simply preserve them, and then sell them at a price of up to 50 r. apiece for subsequent dressing. But, if you have time and the opportunity to deal with this area as well, it makes sense to negotiate with a specialist or company that is engaged in dressing hides, and transfer them to them for processing, and then sell fully finished skins at a price two to three times higher initial. There is a third way - to produce rabbit leather and fur products on your own, but this requires additional significant investment, time and labor.

Another (more profitable and, most importantly, realistic) direction for work is the sale of breeding rabbits to other farmers. If you want to engage in rabbit breeding professionally, you will have to start from the very basics: learn all the wisdom of rabbit breeding from books, articles and from your own experience.

Initial investments in organizing your own rabbit mini-farm will amount to 600 thousand rubles. The more sheds you make and the larger the number of your animals, the higher your profits will be, and the faster your investment will pay off.

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