1. Summary of the project
The aim of the project is the opening of a cancer-breeding farm using the intensive method in the conditions of Central Russia (Lipetsk Region). The essence of the method is to create artificial reservoirs with a total area of 1000 square meters. m. Breeding of crayfish is carried out in covered (wintering) and open ponds, where the crayfish are provided with the necessary conditions for breeding. Farm productivity per year is up to 3 tons of finished products. The main product of the farm is long-fingered cancer, the most common in these latitudes.
The financial calculations of this business plan are based on the average bill of 500 rubles. Project performance indicators are given for a five-year work period. The payback period from the start of the project (design and construction) is 41 months.
To implement the project, taking into account working capital, 6, 294, 000 rubles will be required. To do this, it is planned to attract 3 million rubles. equity and 3, 294, 000 rubles. borrowed money. Loan term is 36 months, interest rate - 18%. The delay in the payment of the first payment is 3 months.
* for 2 years of work
The preparatory period for the project (construction, obtaining permits, etc.) will be 3 months. The first income of the farm will bring in 12 months from the start of work. Reaching the planned capacity will occur in 3-4 years of operation.
2. Description of the industry and company
According to research by the marketing agency Discovery Reserch Group, the consumption of crustaceans in Russia is growing at a rate of 2-14% annually. The growth in demand is due to an increase in domestic production and imports. There are four main types of products on the market: chilled, frozen, finished and canned. The products of foreign manufacturers predominate (about 51%), mainly from countries such as China and Canada. About 52% of Russian production is “Crustacean ice cream”. According to the results for 2014, the market volume of crustaceans decreased by 13% - the effect of sanctions and counter-sanctions affected.
If we talk about freshwater crayfish, then production volumes are difficult to determine with accuracy. Mostly crayfish from the Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory and Altai Territory predominate in the country. On an industrial scale, almost no boiled-frozen cancer is produced in Russia, and the extraction is carried out naturally by fishing. Often, the catch and trade of cancers occurs outside the legal field and without veterinary and accompanying documentation, and the quality of the products leaves much to be desired.
The difficulty in artificial breeding of crayfish is that it takes about 4-5 years to reach marketable weight. At the same time, crabs overwinter for a long time in the middle latitudes. During hibernation, they do not feed, and the growth processes stop for 5-7 months, as a result of which the implementation periods are significantly postponed, and the entrepreneur, who decides to breed, suffers losses.
In connection with this circumstance, for the successful implementation of the project to open a crayfish farm, an intensive method of cultivation was chosen. This method involves the creation of indoor ponds, as a result of which the production time of a consignment is reduced to 1.5-2 years. Crayfish are sold at a high selling price of an average of 400 rubles. per kg in bulk and 550 rubles. retail.
So, the goal of the project is to open a farm for the intensive cultivation of crayfish in the conditions of Central Russia with a view to their subsequent sale in bulk and retail. The implementation of this business idea includes the following steps:
1. Construction of artificial reservoirs for growing crayfish with a total area of 1000 square meters. meters. About 300 square meters. meters of water bodies are indoor pools, the remaining 700 - outdoor pools for growing crayfish in natural conditions.
2. Breeding of crayfish by intensive cultivation, including the provision of all necessary procedures for this (water filtration, feeding, etc.).
3. The formation of a market for products to wholesale and retail customers.
The production capacity of the farm will be 3 tons of crayfish per year. Rakovodsky farm is located in a suburban area of 2000 square meters. meters in the territory of the Lipetsk region, owned. The legal form of this business is IP (individual entrepreneur). Since the cultivation of crayfish in ponds falls under agricultural activity, the Unified Agricultural Tax (CST) has been selected as a form of taxation. Notification of the transition to the USCH is submitted within 30 days from the date of registration or until December 31 of the year preceding the transition.
Business organization does not provide for any hierarchically complex management structure. The responsibilities for managing and maintaining the farm are fulfilled by the project owner and his family members. Staff and hired personnel are not required.
3.Description of services (goods)
The main products of the farm are long-toed crayfish. The habitat of this cancer is very wide and extends from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Urals and Siberia. Under natural conditions, long-toed cancer leads a benthic lifestyle, the type of food is characterized as semi-predatory. It is characterized by its unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention, the oxygen regime, and quickly reaches marketable weight. The optimum temperature for growth is considered to be 22-25 ° C. The basis of food is plants, organic residues, fish fry, tadpoles, insects. The size of long-clawed cancer in the first year of life is about 7-8 cm with a mass of 10-15 g, two-year-olds have a length of about 12 cm with a mass of about 70 g. Large cancers can reach a weight of 100 g or more. In nutritional terms, the average yield of meat of commercial long-clawed cancer from claws and abdomen is 17.5%. By its taste, crayfish often surpasses marine crustaceans, for example, lobsters, crab, shrimp, lobster. Crayfish meat contains up to 16% protein and not more than 0.5% fat.
The average wholesale price is set at 400 rubles. per kg, retail price - 550 rubles. kg This price category is below the average market indicators for the region, which are 450 rubles. for a purchase in bulk and 600 rubles. retail. In the region as a whole, the price per kg of crayfish varies from 300 to 900 rubles per kg. In addition to the sale of crayfish, an additional crayfish delivery service is planned. A complete list of products and services sold is presented in Table. one.
In order to avoid financial costs, the first crayfish for the farm are caught naturally. Crayfish are transported in small boxes measuring 60x40x30. Cancer is laid in boxes in rows (up to 5 rows) with the backs up. Each row is paved with gauze. The juveniles are transported in double-walled plastic bags with a capacity of 40 to 60 liters, which is 1/3 filled with clean water.
Table 1. The list of products and services
Another competitive advantage is the availability of the necessary documents confirming the quality of the products sold. This is a sanitary passport for a car for transporting crayfish (the car is owned by the project organizer), a veterinary certificate of form No. 2, certification according to GOST R-50380-2005, a declaration of conformity. Due to the time and financial costs of obtaining veterinary documents, cancer trading is often conducted illegally by competitors. In connection with this fact, one of the methods of combating unscrupulous competitors is the call of veterinary inspectors to destroy illegal products that could harm the health of consumers.
4. Sales and marketing
The sales market is represented by wholesale buyers, which mainly include restaurants in the city of Lipetsk, located in the historical part of the city, as well as beer establishments. The clients of the former are a category of the population with an income level above the average, the clients of the latter are a wider middle class. Depending on the size and location of the catch, prices for live crayfish in Lipetsk range from 300 to 900 rubles. per kg In particular, the residents of the city have the opportunity to purchase not only local, but also Don, Altai, Kazakhstan and Sevan crayfish. The problem is that they do not get to the townspeople and residents of the region immediately, but after quite a long transportation, which cannot but affect their quality. Moreover, not all products have the appropriate quality certificates, and the prices do not meet the quality offered. The need of residents of the city and the region for quality products that are worth their money is obvious.
Basically, crayfish are bought purposefully, since crayfish are often an indispensable attribute of beer and a fun company. Among the key requirements that customers make are an acceptable, low price, adequate to the size of the crayfish, as well as their “freshness”: mobile and active individuals are preferred over slow ones. In addition, the appearance of the cancer is important. Healthy cancer has a uniform color, has no spots, and the shell and claws should be without cracks and growths.
Crayfish sales to wholesale customers (restaurants and cafes) are subject to agreed volume conditions. Delivery to wholesale customers is free. At retail, crayfish can be purchased directly at the farm using pickup or delivery.
Two main methods were chosen as methods of attracting customers: direct telephone sales and posting information on the Internet. The latter, in particular, provides for the placement of free ads on specialized sites and the creation of a farm group on the social network Vkontakte.
5. Production plan
A crayfish farm is located 10 km from the outskirts of the city of Lipetsk, in the countryside. The company is located within easy reach, there is an asphalt road nearby, which is easily accessible in any direction. The plot of land is 2000 sq. M. meters. The surface of the plot is flat, without slopes and depressions.
Production technology involves the implementation of several points. Next, we consider each of them in more detail.
1. Catching and landing. At the initial stage, cancer is caught in a natural reservoir in August-September (before the mating period) in the volume necessary for production. Landing in a pond occurs in compliance with a density of 5-6 crayfish per 1 square. meter. One male can impregnate 4-5 females.
2. Creating conditions for spawning. About a month after capture (in October-November), long-toed cancer spawning begins. For this period, females are deposited in separate pools. This is done so that the relatives did not destroy the young. The female tolerates up to 40-50 fry.
3. Care. After the second molt, juveniles are caught and transplanted into the fallopian pond, and small crustaceans are grown up to yearlings weighing 7-10 g. Yearlings are caught and transplanted into feeding ponds, where the planting density is lower than in the previous reservoir. At the end of the second year of life, cancers reach a mass of 40-50 g with a length of 9 - 10 cm.
3. Providing breeding conditions in an artificial reservoir. When breeding cancers, water quality, oxygen levels (at least 5-7 mg / l) and hydrogen (7-9 mg / l) are monitored. In this case, the water exchange should be 50 l / min per 1000 square meters. meters of water area. Also in the reservoir provides a natural environment, that is, river plankton, algae, insect larvae and so on.
4. Feeding. Cancer is considered omnivorous, so the choice of the most in favor of any particular food is not a determining factor. However, crayfish can be fed compound feeds from grain, bran, vegetables, fish, meat, milk powder, grass meal, etc. The contents of the ingredients for different age categories of cancers are given in Table. 2. The daily rate of delivery is from 0.2% to 2% of the total mass of cancers. For females during spawning, this norm increases by 0.7-1%, and then after a month decreases to 0.3-0.7%. In winter, crayfish do not grow and do not move, so they do not need food. It is also necessary to ensure that the feed does not remain until the next feeding and does not pollute the pond. To track the amount of eaten, special feeders are used.
Table 2. Composition of feed for different age categories of cancers
To grow crayfish will need to equip 1000 square meters. meters square. Of the 20 ponds, 10 are covered ponds (300 square meters), the rest are open (700 square meters). Open ponds have a larger volume. Ponds are created in strictly rectangular form. The construction of ponds and the supply of necessary communications will cost about 3.5 million rubles. Polypropylene is used for lining covered ponds. The cost of equipping a cancer breeding farm is shown in Table. 3.
Table 3. Equipment costs
Work on ensuring the functioning of the farm is carried out by the project owner and members of his family. The costs of the main period include the purchase of animal feed, electricity costs, other expenses (fuel, veterinary).
6. Organizational plan
The preparatory period will be 3 months. It is planned to catch crayfish for growing in August and September before the start of the mating period. As such, the crayfish farm does not have a control structure. The management and conduct of activities is carried out by the owner, who is assisted by family members. If necessary, hired workers are involved to carry out one-time jobs.
The project cost, taking into account the construction of the farm, its equipment, as well as working capital will amount to 6, 294, 000 rubles. The costs of the main period include: payment of electricity, the purchase of animal feed and other consumables (hydrogen peroxide for oxidizers, transportation costs, etc.). For the implementation of the project it is planned to attract 3 million rubles. equity and 3.29 million rubles. - borrowed money. Loan term is 36 months, interest rate - 18%. The delay in the payment of the first payment is 3 months.
The average check for farm products at retail is 550 rubles., Wholesale - 400 rubles. The financial indicators of the project from the moment the farm began to operate - revenue, cash flow, net profit - are given in Appendix 1. The calculations are made taking into account seasonality. The main profit the cancer farm receives from May to October.
8. Evaluation of project effectiveness
The project to organize a cancer breeding farm is in demand due to the need to satisfy the demand among the population for quality products manufactured in the region. In connection with the duration of the cultivation of crayfish (they reach market weight in 1.5-2 years), the farm will begin to make its first profit 15 months after the start of the project. The payback period from the start of the project (construction and design) will be 41 months. The discounted payback period is 45 months. Key performance indicators of the project are given in Table. four.
Table 4. Project performance indicators
9. Risks and warranties
This project is fundamentally new for the region, and therefore there are certain risks associated with its implementation. The main difficulties are associated with the preparatory period and the long term for reaching production capacities associated with the slow process of cancer growth. However, the risk reduction is affected by the need of the population for these products at a price lower than average with quality above average. Demand is characterized by significant elasticity at lower prices. A description of the risks and force majeure circumstances that the company may encounter is given in Table. five.
Table 5. Assessment of project risks and measures to prevent their occurrence or their consequences
Key financial indicators of the project in a five-year perspective
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