Minimum starting capital4 months
Payback270 000 ₽
How to create a mushroom mushroom farm
The aim of the project is the creation of a mushroom farm for the cultivation of double-yarrow mushrooms with a view to their subsequent sale in raw form in the Krasnodar Territory and the city of Krasnodar. As a business idea, a satellite cultivation system was chosen, the essence of which is the production and collection of champignons without the equipment of a compost shop. Compost for champignons is purchased ready-made from a specialized company in the volumes required for production. Thanks to this, the initial investment is reduced and a temporary resource is saved. The company has a small format. Productivity per year is up to 17 tons of mushrooms per year.
The main advantages of a mushroom farm working on ready-made compost are:
low level of initial investment;
minimum risks of yield loss;
simplification of the production process.
Financial calculations of the project were made for the enterprise, which includes 6 cameras with a total cultivation area of 570 sq. meters. The production cycle lasts about 60-63 days. The production technology is based on the implementation of three main stages: purchase and delivery of phase 2 compost, germination of mycelium, picking mushrooms. Further, the crop is sold in small wholesale in retail chains of the city of Krasnodar and at its own outlet in the grocery market.
The project cost will be 1, 249, 000 rubles. For implementation, it is planned to attract borrowed funds in the amount of 700, 000 rubles. Loan term - 24 months. Interest rate - 22%. The delay in paying the first installment is 3 months.
* for 4 months of work
The preparatory period, including the repair and equipment of the premises, will take 4 months. Reaching the planned sales volume - 3 months.
The profitability of growing champignons
Champignons are one of the most popular cultivated mushrooms in the world. They account for about 75-80% of all cultivated mushrooms. The market of cultivated mushrooms in Russia cannot be called developed - until the embargo was introduced in August 2014, imports significantly exceeded domestic production (92% versus 8%). However, the departure of foreign manufacturers and the devaluation of the ruble with a subsequent increase in product prices spurred domestic production, which over the six months of 2015, according to various sources, grew from 15 to 22%.
Despite the reduction in imports (according to the estimates of “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”, over the 6 months of 2014 the number of foreign products decreased by 24%), there is a shortage of mushroom products on the Russian market. These factors contribute to starting your own business.
The aim of the project is the opening of a mushroom farm for growing champignons in the Krasnodar Territory, with a productivity of up to 17 tons of mushrooms per year. The company is a farm in a village located 5 km from the border of the city of Krasnodar. The production is located in its own area of 320 square meters. meters, previously used as a warehouse. The mushroom farm has 6 cultivation chambers.
A distinctive feature of production is work with ready-made compost (phase 2), which is purchased from a specialized company in Krasnodar. Compost is delivered in the form of briquettes. In this regard, the company has no need for its own compost shop, which somewhat simplifies the production procedure.
The main advantages of a mushroom farm working on ready-made compost are:
lower level of initial investment;
minimum risks of yield loss;
simplification of the production process.
The company employs 5 people, including a technologist, a sales manager, an accountant, a seller and a mushroom picker. The enterprise management structure is simple. At the head of the business is the director of the enterprise, to which the rest of the employees are directly subordinate. Form of ownership - IP with a simplified tax system (6% of income).
How to find a market for the sale of champignons
The manufactured and marketed product of the company is champignon mushroom (two-cinnamon mushroom), which is considered one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world. Champignon has wonderful taste, is used in many dishes and has a number of useful properties. Mushrooms are stewed, fried, boiled, marinated, added to the first and second courses and salads.
80% of the mushroom consists of water. Another 20% are vitamins, minerals and organic acids. Champignons are rich in phosphorus, the content of which they are close to fish. Due to its low calorie content, champignons are considered a dietary product, and due to the lack of sugar they can be consumed by people with diabetes. Substances contained in champignons reduce cholesterol, prevent the development of tumors. Also, the use of these mushrooms reduces the likelihood of a heart attack and prevents the development of atherosclerosis.
Due to the well-known and palatability, demand for champignons in Russia is constant. Mushrooms are sold both fresh and dried and canned. This project proposes the implementation of exclusively fresh products (morning harvest, cooling).
The product does not require any special pre-sale preparation, including only standard procedures (washing). Transportation is carried out in ordinary boxes with a capacity of 3-5 kg.
Champignons are an environmentally friendly product for the production of which chemistry is not used. Since compost is needed to grow champignons, the issue of recycling production waste is to remove the waste compost. With each ton of compost 2 phases loaded into the growing chamber, at the end of the period, about 600-650 spent compost remains. However, the used compost of champignons can serve as a good fertilizer for gardeners and gardeners and serve as an additional source of income.
Marketing and sale of raw champignons
Raw champignons are in demand among a large category of the population, which is engaged in self-cooking. Mistresses choose them purposefully for cooking first or second courses, quite often picking mushrooms in size. The key requirements for these mushrooms are simple, but extremely comprehensive - freshness and quality. However, such products are not always found in stores or in markets. According to a survey conducted by the School of Mushroom Growing magazine together with the Department of Mycology and Algology of Moscow State University, 17% of respondents do not buy mushrooms because they are not satisfied with the quality, and also because they are simply not on the shelves at the time of shopping.
Low-quality stale champignons can have a grayish color, dark spots on the hats, damaged film. An indicator of a poor-quality mushroom can also be its consistency, which can resemble a sponge and weak elasticity. In addition, spoiled product has a faint or unpleasant odor.
Qualitative champignon differs in white, slightly pinkish or gently beige color, matte hat without spots. The film of the fungus is either whole (in small champignons), or with tears (in large and medium). The smell of such a mushroom is pleasant, and to the touch the mushroom is elastic and dense. The production process will be aimed specifically at creating high-quality champignon.
Mushrooms in Krasnodar are sold by both small family farms and large enterprises. The price of raw products in the city varies from 80 rubles. (wholesale) up to 255 rubles. per kilogram and an average of 170 rubles. per kilogram. As a competitive advantage at the initial stage, it is planned to sell mushrooms at a price of 160 rubles. per kilogram.
If you characterize the situation on the mushroom market of Russia as a whole, then we can note the trends that contribute to the opening of their own business. According to the School of Mushroom Growing magazine, in the first half of 2015, the production of cultivated mushrooms in Russia increased by 15% compared to the same period in 2014. Champignon production reached 4 720 tons, an increase of 606 tons.
The growth of the market was facilitated by such factors as falling under the embargo (import of fresh mushrooms from the EU countries was forbidden), and as a result - reduction of imports, as well as devaluation of the ruble. Due to the current situation, manufacturers were able to increase production capacity, as well as raise selling prices. In particular, prices for champignons rose by an average of 35% compared with the first half of 2014.
At the initial stage, the manufactured goods are planned to be sold at our own outlet in the Krasnodar market, as well as in small wholesale. Refrigeration equipment is used to preserve freshness. The products do not need any large-scale promotions. Wholesale buyers are planned to attract using free ads on the Internet, as well as through their own connections. Delivery of products to the place of sale is organized by our own transport (freight van).
Champignon production plan
The mushroom farm has a good location, located 5 km from the city of Krasnodar, where products are sold. Within hours of access from the enterprise is the main compost supplier, with whom a supply agreement has been concluded.
Mushroom production technology includes several main stages. Due to the fact that ready-made compost is purchased, compost production is completely absent in the production cycle.
At the first stage, a pasteurized compost (phase 2), seeded with mycelium and containing trace elements necessary for mushroom growth, is purchased from a specialized company. Compost is packed in a special shrink film and is a rectangular block weighing 20 kg. The mycelium itself, located in the block, is at an early stage of overgrowth. Compost delivery is organized during the day to avoid the negative effects of temperature and external factors. The purchased batch of compost should correspond to the area of the germination chamber.
The second stage involves fruit formation. For growing champignons, a shelf system is used. Mushroom blocks are laid horizontally. The film is cut from the top of the briquette, and the side parts are lowered to the bottom to provide a single compost space. The film in the lower part of the briquette ensures the preservation of the humidity necessary to obtain a high yield. The temperature necessary for germination is maintained in the chamber.
At the third stage, fruiting and picking of mushrooms occurs. The time to harvest after filling the chambers with compost phase 2 is about 35 days. A low productivity is considered an indicator of 130-160 kg / t. The average yield is about 160-190 kg / t, good and high 190-230 kg / t and from 230 kg / t, respectively. The temperature at the stage of collection of mushrooms should be 17-18 ° C.
The collection is carried out daily or with short breaks between the waves. The fruiting bodies are not cut off, but twisted out, then the remains of the rhizome are cut off. The collection process takes place with gloves on. For storage after harvest, the crop is stored in a refrigerator. The quality of mushrooms and their shelf life determines the content of dry matter in them, which is about 7-8%. If these indicators are exceeded, the mushrooms will be watery, and the shelf life will not exceed 2 days.
The total area of the mushroom farm is 320 square meters. meters. To obtain a regular crop (at least 18-20 times a month), it is necessary to create 6 cameras with a total area of 288 square meters. meters (48 sq. meters), since in this case it is possible to harvest from different cameras located on different fruiting waves. In this case, loading the chamber with compost phase 2 occurs every 10 days. An approximate schedule of work on a farm with 6 cultivation chambers is presented in Table. one.
Table 1. The schedule of work on the farm in the presence of three cultivation chambers
The costs of cleaning the premises, repairs, thermal insulation, dividing into growing chambers, as well as summing up the necessary communications (electricity, water, heating) will amount to 579 thousand rubles.
The cost of equipping the premises (purchase and installation) will amount to 470 thousand rubles. To grow champignons, you will definitely need to equip the room with a ventilation and air conditioning system. This is necessary in order to regulate air temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide content in the chambers. It will also be necessary to equip the building with a cooling system, heating, automatic climate control, electrical, water supply systems, refrigerators and 5-tier racks. To reduce costs, it was decided to give preference to partially used equipment, but of good quality.
To ensure the operation of the enterprise, 1 manager will be needed, in the role of which the owner and founder of the company will directly act. To ensure the production process, you will need 1 technologist, 2 mushroom pickers, a handyman, and also a seller for your own outlet in the market. The staffing and payroll are given in Table. 3
Table 3. Staffing and payroll
Given the use of 5-tier racks, the total cultivation area will be about 570 square meters. meters. In order to grow champignons in such an area, about 48 tons of compost will be needed. Compost weighing 8 tons is purchased every 9 days in briquettes of 20 kg (400 briquettes per batch), wrapped in shrink film. The cost per ton of compost is 9 thousand rubles. The cultivation rate, subject to the required standards, is 25-35%. The total volume of production will be 12-16.8 tons per production cycle and 72-100 tons per year. Thus, from 200 kg of mushrooms will be sold per day. Compost delivery is arranged by a private carrier. Compost delivery time to the mushroom farm is 45 min-70 min. The cost of delivery services is 500 rubles per hour.
As a result, the basic period costs are based on salaries to employees (102.7 thousand people), purchase of consumables, rental of a retail outlet on the market (8 thousand rubles per month), payment for compost delivery services (500 rubles. / hour), payment of housing and communal services, fuels and lubricants.
Champignon Growing Organizational Plan
The project implementation period will be 4 months. Within 2.5 months, it is planned to complete the repair, redevelopment, and thermal insulation of the room. Another 1.5 months will be required to install the air conditioning and ventilation system and equip with other equipment.
Direct management and management of the project is carried out by the owner, who solves the main strategic functions, combining his responsibilities with the functions of a sales manager. The daily functioning is supported by 2 employees involved in the collection and storage, a technologist, a handyman, also involved in the loading and delivery of mushrooms to the place of sale.
Champignon Production Plan
The costs of the preparatory period required for equipment and repairs will amount to 1, 049, 000 rubles. Considering working capital, the project cost will amount to 1, 249, 000 rubles. For implementation, it is planned to attract borrowed funds in the amount of 700, 000 rubles. Loan term - 24 months. Interest rate - 22%. The delay in paying the first installment is 3 months.
The financial indicators of the project - revenue, cash flow, net profit - are shown in Appendix 1. The calculations are based on the planned sales volume of 7.3 tons of mushrooms per month.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of growing champignons
The project to open a mushroom farm is characterized by a high level of efficiency, which is confirmed by the indicators given in Table. 4. The payback period of the project is 7 months. Discount payback period - 8 months. Net profit of 270 thousand rubles. upon reaching the planned volume is guaranteed for 3 months. work.
Table 4. Project performance indicators
Mushroom farm risks and guarantees
The project to open a mushroom farm for growing champignons belongs to well-developed types of business, and therefore the risks of implementing a business idea are minimal. Their reduction is also affected by the availability of premises, the positioning of products in the middle price segment (160 rubles per kg of fresh champignons), and favorable market conditions. However, in the process of activity of the enterprise, it may encounter some predictable and unpredictable circumstances, the assessment of which is presented in Table. five.
Table 5. Assessment of project risks and measures to prevent their occurrence or their consequences
Key financial indicators of the project in a five-year perspective