1. Project Summary
The aim of the project is to open a pheasant farm for growing pheasants for sale (live, meat, egg) for wholesale and retail customers from Moscow and the Moscow region.
The essence of the project is to create closed enclosures for breeding pheasants, independently conduct incubation and rearing of young animals. The main products sold by the farm:
- hunting pheasant (from 1 day);
- pheasant carcasses.
- pheasant egg.
The main sales channels are hunting farms of the Moscow Region, small farmers engaged in poultry farming, and restaurants in Moscow. At the first stage of production, it is planned to organize a queue of a thousand birds.
The project cost, including working capital, will be 820 thousand rubles. To implement the business idea, it is planned to attract borrowed funds in the amount of 200 thousand rubles. The loan term is 24 months. Interest rate - 22%. Payment deferral - 3 months.
* from 13 months of work
The preparatory phase of the project will be 4 months. To organize production, it is planned to build closed enclosures and utility rooms on the basis of our own land in a rural area.
2. Description of the industry and company
The most developed pheasant industry in Europe. The first attempt at artificial breeding of pheasant there was made at the beginning of the XVI century. In Russia, breeding pheasants on dicherfusses only began at the end of the 19th century. The first large nurseries were opened near Moscow, St. Petersburg and Orel. At present, pheasant breeding in Russia is poorly developed, and there are only a few dichephers. Basically, the products are in demand among lovers of hunting for decoy and introduced pheasant, as well as among restaurateurs and gourmets. The latter direction is much less in demand - it is much more profitable for restaurants to buy frozen pheasants abroad at a lower price. The peculiarity of pheasant breeding is that it is possible to breed this bird in the open air all year round (if we are talking about the Middle lane), since pheasants are not afraid of frost and winter in the open air.
The goal of the project is the creation of a pheasant farm for the wholesale and retail sale of live pheasant for hunting farms and hunting enthusiasts, as well as the sale of meat to restaurants in Moscow. The farm is an artificial breeding of pheasant in specially created enclosed enclosures. The place chosen to open the farm is located in an ecologically clean rural area 40 km from the city of Moscow.
3. Description of goods
The company sells both live pheasants, as well as meat and eggs of this bird. The following are the main characteristics of farm products. The list of goods sold is presented in Table 1.
Pheasant hunting. The most popular species in hunting farms and pheasant gardens, which is valued for its weight, rich color and unpretentiousness in food. The hunting pheasant was bred by hybridization from subspecies of the common pheasant. The male has a size of 75-90 cm (from the beak to the tip of the tail), reaches a weight of up to 1.8 kg. Female pheasants are noticeably smaller - 50-65 cm, weight - 1-1.2 kg. It has a long tail of 18 feathers tapering towards the end. The top of short, rounded wings is formed by 4-5 fly feathers. The sides of the male’s head are covered with red skin. The pheasant has a bright color of plumage, dark green head and neck, golden red chest. The plumage of the rest of the body has brownish-golden and reddish-golden colors with black and brown mottles, underwings are white. Around the eyes, the color is red. The plumage of a female pheasant is brownish-brown with dark and reddish mottles.
Pheasant meat. In terms of taste, pheasant meat is similar to chicken meat, however, pheasant shanks and thighs are much slimmer and tougher. The pheasant bones are thin and translucent, the keel is long, and the back is thin. Pheasant is very successful in cooking, famous for juicy meat, which does not have to be pickled. Fillet stewed in its own juice. The whole phase can be baked; the stuffed pheasant is also popular. The calorie content of the pheasant is 254 kcal per 100 g of product. Protein content - 18 g, fat - 20 g, carbohydrate - 0.5 g, water - 65 g, ash - 1 g. Pheasant meat has a rich chemical composition; it contains 13 vitamins (A, PP, A (RE), B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, E (TE), H, PP (niacin equivalent), choline). Pheasant contains mineral substances necessary for the human body: potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, selenium, iron, chlorine, sulfur, iodine, chromium, fluorine, molybdenum, tin, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, phosphorus, sodium.
Pheasant egg. By their taste, they are recognized as tastier than chicken and are a delicacy. They are considered more useful, are used in diet food, as they are non-allergenic. The size of pheasant eggs is half that of chicken. Pheasant eggs are a rare product that cannot be found on the shelves of grocery stores and supermarkets. In pheasant cooking, eggs are used boiled and baked, and added to salads. Pheasant eggs are a high-calorie product (700 kcal per 100 g of product). 100 g contains 70.8 g of fat, 6.5 g of protein, 4.2 g of carbohydrates, 1.5 g of water and 1.3 g of ash. Pheasant eggs contain vitamins A, D, the entire group of vitamins B, as well as trace elements - fluorine, selenium, zinc, iron.
The form of ownership for this type of activity is IP. The code of activity for OKVED is 08/18/2019.130. To organize a business, you will need permits from SES and fire supervision. Also required are veterinary certificates from the veterinary service of the district in which the farm is located, and a certificate for the sale of live poultry and meat.
All poultry grown on the farm is kept in enclosed enclosures. The farm is located in an ecologically clean rural area. Ecologically clean feeds are used to feed the bird, there is no addition of any impurities to gain weight or create a colorful color.
Table 1. List of goods
4. Sales and marketing
The main market (about 90%) of pheasant farm products is hunting farms that organize hunting pheasants for their customers. The remaining 10% of the farm’s products are sold in Moscow restaurants in small batches (carcasses, live, hatching eggs) and retail sale to private customers.
Supply agreements with some hunting farms operating in the region were previously concluded at the business planning stage. According to rough estimates, farm profitability is able to provide 5-10 contacts with wholesalers. Products for hunting farms are delivered alive. Lot size for 1 hunt - up to 100 birds.
The demand for pheasant among hunting farms is due to the fact that the organization of bird hunting brings the most tangible economic effect, compared with other types of hunting. For example, for a royal hunt, only for outbidding a pheasant, a hunting farm can earn about 100 thousand rubles, which requires only the help of a huntsman, a dog and a transfer to the place of hunting. Additional income can be plucking, deboning and gutting carcasses, which also bring considerable income (about 50 thousand). At the same time, the cost of pheasant, which is about 300-450 rubles, allows breeders to earn about the same amount as hunting farms.
When buying poultry, hunting enterprises most often require that the bird be “interesting for the hunter, ” that is, shy, able to fly well and have a beautiful presentation. The best age for acquiring pheasants is 3-4 months. During this period, the bird has not yet molted into its adult outfit, it is immune to weather changes and unpretentious in food (it can be fed with grain and grain waste. At an earlier age, buyers may encounter the need to grow pheasants, which may present certain difficulties. The requirements listed above are implemented in the process of growing pheasants. High aviaries are arranged for the bird and semi-free keeping is ensured. In order for the pheasant not to lose its presentation (birds in aviaries have the usual s fight) and the beautiful feathers on a farm birds wear special red glasses.
There is little competition among pheasant farms in the region under consideration. According to rough estimates of industry experts, in the Central region there are about 10-15 thousand heads of pheasant. The exact number of competitors is difficult to determine. There are not so many direct competitors (exclusively growing pheasants) in the Moscow Region, in 90% of cases the hunting pheasant is bred in the company of other birds. In most cases, we are talking either about small family farms that breed several types of ornamental pheasant, or about larger poultry farms, where the pheasant is often presented as an exotic addition to the traditional types of poultry. The price for a three-month-old pheasant in the market ranges from 550 to 1000 rubles. Large quantities of pheasant are sold mainly for hunting farms. The cost of the head of a pheasant in a hunting farm is set at 1, 500 rubles, reducing the price depending on the number of pheasants killed. Industry-leading pheasant farms have a fairly wide range of services. In addition to cultivation, they can engage in the direct organization of hunting for the graduation pheasant with the accompaniment of a huntsman and the organization of guest services, as a result of which the revenue can double or triple. Among the weaknesses of competitors can be noted ill-conceived marketing policies and the lack of intelligible information about products on the Internet.
In connection with a narrow distribution channel, it is planned to attract major buyers through personal negotiations with representatives of hunting farms and representatives of the restaurant industry. In the process of wholesale sales, the bargaining method is acceptable. In addition, it is planned to create an official farm website where you can find information on prices and services, a work schedule, and contact information. Also, product information is posted on free sites for ads on the Internet. In the process of developing the economy and expanding the sales market, it is planned to grow and breed other species of wild bird (hazel grouse, black grouse, etc.).
5. Production plan
The company is located 40 km from the border of Moscow, in a rural area, on the territory of the land owned by the founder of the project. This location is successful, since the factors necessary for the successful cultivation of pheasant (conditions as close to natural as possible) are observed, the production is in the vicinity of a solvent audience living in Moscow and the Moscow Region. At 10 km from the farm there is a federal highway, which allows easy access to the city.
The technology of breeding pheasants does not provide for any complex procedures. The main processes include ensuring the conditions necessary for the life and reproduction of pheasants, feeding, and incubation. The entire production process, including the collection, laying of eggs in an incubator, rearing of young animals, release into cages, slaughter and storage of carcasses, is done on a farm. The growing technology is discussed in more detail below.
Birds are kept in enclosures at the rate of 2 square meters. meters per 1 bird. Three females in the aviary account for 1 male. The main features of pheasant cultivation, in comparison with the “usual” bird, are the provision of a “marketable” look and the prevention of poultry diseases. So, for the first goal, that is, to preserve the beautiful plumage (pheasants often pull feathers from each other) they wear special glasses so that they can not see each other well. For the second purpose, you must have a veterinarian, since the pheasant, in comparison with chicken, is more susceptible to various diseases.
A pheasant needs about 70-100 grams of feed every day. For 3 months, the pheasant reaches an adult weight of about 1-1.2 kg. The growing cycle is about 4-5 months after the pheasant has molted and beautiful plumage appears. “Meat” breeds and hunting are kept in different parts of the enclosures, smaller cells are used for pheasants for meat. A large area is used for broodstock. For normal reproduction, conditions close to natural are provided.
The period of puberty in pheasants is reached at 11-12 months. During the breeding season, which occurs in late March and early April, the female finds a secluded place, scratches a hole and lays 8-12 eggs. During mating, you should carefully monitor the behavior of birds. It is necessary that the females accept the male, otherwise the clutch will be empty. The practice of changing the male from another aviary is practiced. If the male is active, then additional females are planted to him. For laying eggs, it is possible to arrange small houses in order to avoid aggression of males in relation to females. Pheasant rushes until mid-July.
Female eggs are laid once a day or two. From a first-year female, you can get up to 25 eggs per season. To prevent other birds from pecking, eggs are regularly collected and placed in an incubator. Large incubated eggs are selected for incubation. The shell of these eggs should not have visible defects. Before laying, you need to let the eggs lie down at room temperature, since you can’t immediately put them into the device cold. For the first three weeks, the incubator maintains a temperature of 37.8 degrees with a humidity of 50-60%, then drops to 37.5 with a humidity of 75-80%. Eggs should be turned over regularly so that the embryo does not stick to the shell from the inside. Also, to increase hatchability, a periodic decrease in temperature occurs from the second week. In Tab. 2 shows the main incubation periods and the necessary conditions.
Tab. 2 Main incubation periods
Chicks appear on about 25 days. The growth of young animals for the first time occurs in separate cages. For feeding, compound feed for broiler chickens (PK-5) is used. Starting from 4 months, pheasants are transferred to grain mixtures, grain waste and cut grass.
The area of the pheasant farm is 3400 square meters. meters, which allows you to hold about 1000 heads of pheasant. A separate enclosure will be required to keep the young. The walls are made of welded metal mesh with a mesh size of 2.5 cm. From above, the aviary is covered by a nylon fishing net, which prevents the bird from flying out of the aviary and allows good sunlight transmission. To ensure productive work, the company will need an incubator for 700 eggs, feeders, drinking bowls, glasses for birds, and disinfectants. The main consumable is chicken feed PK-5 and PK-6. The average price of this feed is 35 rubles. per kilogram (sold in bags of 30-40 kg).
To ensure the operation of the enterprise, one full-time employee will be needed (Table 3), who performs the main responsibilities for the operation of the farm. Project management and strategic planning are carried out by the project owner. Supporting functions for the organization of work on the farm are carried out by members of the owner's family. If necessary, hired personnel are involved.
Table 3. Staffing and payroll
6. Organizational plan
The project implementation period will be 4 months. Project management is carried out by the owner, to whom regular and hired employees directly report.
7. Financial plan
The project cost will amount to 820 thousand rubles. This amount includes the cost of building enclosures, the purchase of equipment, the purchase of young animals, feed, and the creation of a site. To implement the business idea, it is planned to attract borrowed funds in the amount of 200 thousand rubles. Interest rate - 22%. Loan term - 24 months. Payment deferral - 3 months.
The financial indicators of the project - revenue, cash flow, net profit - are shown in Appendix 1. The calculations are based on the cost of a living pheasant at 400 rubles.
8. Assessment of the effectiveness of the project
The project payback period from the moment the farm is launched will be 17 months. Discounted payback period - 19 months. Project performance indicators are given in Table. four
Table 4. Project performance indicators
9. Risks and warranties
The main risks of the project are associated with a narrow market. In this regard, to reduce risks, distribution channels are at the planning stage. Description of the main risks and their assessment are given in Table. five.
Table 5. Assessment of project risks and measures to prevent their occurrence or their consequences
Key financial indicators of the project in a five-year perspective