Cardboard, according to GOST, is called "a material consisting mainly of plant fibers, different from paper with a greater thickness and weight per square meter." Based on the German classification, then cardboard is a thick paper, the mass of a square meter of which exceeds 150 grams. Usually in Russia they call cardboard paper with a thickness of more than 0.2 mm.
Cardboard is used in various industries and, depending on the purpose, is divided into packaging, printing, construction, electrical, shoe. In this article we will consider the production of packaging cardboard and corrugated cardboard. Since these products are in stable demand, the business is not only profitable, but also quite profitable. Cardboard and corrugated cardboard can be sold to packaging manufacturers or used for own packaging production.
Opening a small enterprise for the production of packaging cardboard will require at least 3 million rubles, excluding the cost of the premises. The addition of a corrugated board production line will cost at least another 3 million.
A manufacturing facility may have an area of 800 to 1800 square meters. At the same time, about 800 square meters are allocated for the production of cardboard, and at least 1000 square meters for packaging production, if any. Air temperature should be at least 18 degrees, and air humidity not more than 80 percent. Ventilation in the production room should be designed according to the SNIP on 08/18/2019-91, and the fire safety system according to the SNIP on 21-01-97.
For the storage of raw materials, it is necessary to provide an area of at least 500 square meters, the same area will be needed for the equipment of the finished cardboard warehouse. The temperature in the warehouse should be more than 5 degrees. The storage room must be reliably protected from groundwater and other sources of moisture.
In addition to special equipment for mass preparation and the production of cardboard, which we will discuss below, you must have an electric forklift or hoist. The cost of an electric lift truck is from 100 thousand rubles.
The raw material for the production of cardboard is waste paper grades MS-6, MS-7 and cellulose. MS-6 is an old corrugated cardboard or cardboard trim, and MS-7 is mixed cardboard. The average cost of waste paper on the recycling exchange is about 4-5 thousand rubles per ton. The use of other waste paper is possible, but in an amount not exceeding 15% of the composition. The quality of the finished cardboard directly depends on the quality of the waste paper. Cellulose costs 18-20 thousand rubles per ton. The addition of bleached or unbleached pulp significantly improves the color and strength of the paperboard.
Additionally, rosin glue or aluminum sulphate (alumina), as well as starch, can be added. This improves the texture of the cardboard. Typically, aluminum sulfate is added 1.2 kilograms per ton, and glue - 4.5 kilograms per ton.
The pulp preparation equipment line consists of a pulper, a vortex cleaner for heavy impurities, a turbo separator, a pulsation mill, a disk mill, a pressure screen, a vibrating screen, a knotter, a vortex cleaner for heavy inclusions, a mixer for the pulp. The apparatus for forming a cardboard sheet is called a cardboard maker. A line for the production of cardboard costs from 1.5 million rubles.
At the first stage of production, waste paper and cellulose are dissolved and cleaned. To carry out these operations, equipment for mass preparation is used - a pulper. From the pulper, the mass enters the pool, and then into the high concentration vortex cleaner and turbo separator. The mass is cleaned of tape, films, paper clips, staples, etc.
After the turbo separator, the mass is fed to a pulsation mill, then additional sorting by pressure screening takes place. The mass passes through a sieve with holes 0.3-0.35 mm wide. The sorted material enters the composite pool, where starch and rosin glue are introduced into it. The final grinding is carried out by two sequentially installed disk mills, after which the mass passes through the machine pool to the mixing pump, where it is diluted to a concentration of 0.6-0.8 percent. Next, there is a cleaning from small inclusions of a fibrous nature using a system of vortex conical cleaners. At this stage, aluminum sulfate is introduced, and then the mass is fed into a cardboard machine on a uniformly moving metal mesh, where the cardboard sheet is formed, dehydrated and dried. The cardboard sheet under high pressure is smoothed by the shafts of the machine calender. The finished sheet is wound on a tambour shaft, and then cut into sheets and rolls on a slitting machine, after which the cardboard production process is considered complete, and the finished product. Thus, packaging cardboard and flat layers of corrugated cardboard are produced.
The production of one ton of cardboard takes about 1.1 tons of waste paper, 2 tons of steam, 600-800 kW of electricity, 15-20 cubic meters of water.
The market value of a square meter of box cardboard is from 18 rubles. The prime cost is about 9-10 rubles. It is beneficial to use cardboard of our own production for the further manufacture of corrugated cardboard, the most popular packaging material.
Now consider the manufacturing technology of corrugated board. Depending on the density of the raw materials, the corrugated board E (1.1 - 1.6 mm), B (2.2 - 3.2 mm), C (3.2 - 4.4 mm) and A (4.4 - 5.5 mm) differ. Corrugated cardboard can consist of 2, 3, 5 or 7 layers.
For the manufacture of corrugated cardboard, corrugating paper with a density of 100 to 140 g / m3, cardboard for flat layers with a density of 150 to 235 g / m3, starch or silicate glue are used. Corrugating paper is sold in rolls, the cost is from 14 thousand rubles a ton.
During the day before the start of production, the process of conditioning paper and cardboard occurs, for which they must be placed in a room with a temperature of at least 15 degrees.
The prepared material is fixed on an unwinding machine, from where it enters the heating cylinders and intermediate rollers, where they are moistened and uniformly heated. Thanks to heating, the adhesive penetrates better into the thickness of the paper.
The corrugating paper enters the corrugating press, where it passes between the gear corrugated shafts heated to 150-180 degrees, forming a wavy layer.
Then, an adhesive film is applied to the corrugated paper. This happens in an applicator machine. The corrugated layer is combined with the cardboard layer and is pressed tightly to it under the action of the clamping shaft. Then the product is fed through the storage bridge to the size machine, there is applied a layer of glue on the free corrugated side, after which the corrugated board is in the drying machine, where it is dried using steam or electricity. As a result, excess moisture is removed, the glue hardens, and the turn of the cooling line comes. This produces a two-layer corrugated cardboard.
The cooled material is fed into the longitudinal-transverse section, where it is cut and cut with circular knives. In the same place, riving is done with the help of groove couplings. Leveling is necessary for the formation of groove lines along which sheets will be bent for further production of packaging.
The cost of raw materials for the production of 1000 square meters of corrugated cardboard is 3000 rubles. Electricity is consumed around 1, 500 kW \ h. The cost of generating steam will be about 650 rubles, since the specific steam rate is 4 Gcal, and the cost of 1 Gcal of steam is 162 rubles.
The cost of corrugated cardboard is also affected by the cost of employee salaries, rental costs, taxes. As a result, the cost of workshop production of 1000 square meters of corrugated cardboard will be 14 thousand rubles.
The average market price of a square meter of corrugated cardboard is 20-25 rubles, respectively 1000 square meters - 20-25 thousand rubles.
A line for the production of corrugated cardboard costs from 3 million rubles, with sufficient production volumes it pays for itself in a few months.
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