Corn is one of the most popular crops in the world. It is boiled, canned, flour, butter, popcorn, porridge, etc. are made from it. Corn cultivation in Russia began not so long ago, but now our country is a major exporter of corn, with the domestic market competing with the export market.
Corn is a heat-loving and heat-resistant plant. The minimum temperature for seed germination is +5 degrees. Corn feels best at 24-28 degrees. During the flowering period, a strong increase in temperature (above 33 degrees) can adversely affect the yield and quality of the ears. Corn needs a 12-hour light day. Without the sun, it does not produce crops.
The leaders in growing corn in Russia are the Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory, Belgorod, Voronezh Regions. This crop grows best on chernozem soils. Most of the crop is used for livestock needs: for the production of animal feed and feeding to poultry; the rest is used in the food, starch and syrup industry, processed into corn flakes, butter, food additives. About 20 percent of the crop is exported.
The best precursors to corn are legumes, nightshade and pumpkin. Soil preparation begins in the fall. When digging, manure or compost superphosphate is added. In the spring, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are added. If microfertilizers containing zinc and molybdenum are added during sowing, this will increase the drought tolerance of corn. Corn is recommended to be sown when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm reaches 10-12 degrees.
When calculating the number of seeds, it is convenient to use the table.
plants during harvesting, thousand / ha
The number of seeds during sowing, 1 pog. m, pcs
Seeding rate of seeds of the 1st class, kg / ha
Weight 1000 grains, g
If it is planned to grow 52 thousand plants per hectare, then 4 grains per linear meter will be required. With a weight of 1000 grains of 160 g, it is necessary to take 9.2 kg per hectare; with a weight of 300 g - 17 kg.
The cost of seeds is 3, 000 rubles for 70, 000 germinating seeds. For an average sowing density of one hectare, we need 20 kg of seeds, which will cost 29 thousand rubles.
The best way to get an early crop of corn and get rid of the threat of crop destruction by pests is to grow seedlings. For it, you can use any hybrids and varieties of sweet corn. When the soil warms up to 14 degrees, seedlings can be planted under cover or in the ground.
The cost of renting one hectare of land in different regions of Russia is very different, depending on the soil, the proximity of settlements, roads, the availability of irrigation. It can be from 1000 rubles to 10000 rubles.
Plowing the land costs 1, 500-2, 000 rubles per hectare.
A corn seeder can be purchased for amounts ranging from 500 thousand rubles to 1.5 million, a multicultural machine costs about 50, 000 rubles. Sow grain with row spacing of 70 cm. Care consists of loosening the soil, thinning seedlings, hilling stems, top dressing, and pinching.
To destroy weeds, harrowing is carried out first five days after sowing, then ten days later. Late spring weeds, sprouting simultaneously with corn, are destroyed by post-emergence harrowing, after which they start inter-row cultivations, combining them with fertilizing the plants with nitrogen. Also, if there is a risk of weed contamination, the following herbicides should be used: Frontier Optima (0.8–1.2 l / ha), Merlin (0.1–0.16 kg / ha), Stomp (3–6 l / ha).
In dry periods, regular loosening of the soil is carried out. During the growing season, corn is fed three times. The general norms of fertilizers on loamy soils with the availability of accessible forms of nutrients not lower than the average are approximately as follows: 120-150 kg / ha of nitrogen; 50-70 kg / ha of phosphorus; 90-110 kg \ ha of potassium.
Pest protection is also needed: spraying plants and soil. During flowering, additional pollination is performed.
Corn requires regular watering, preferably drip irrigation. Along one tube, 2 rows of plants can be placed. Daily irrigation rates: in the phase “seedlings - 3rd leaf” - 10-15 m³ / ha; in the phase of “3rd leaf - the beginning of the growth of leaf mass” - 20–25 m³ / ha; in the “panicle panning” phase - 35–40 m³ / ha; in the “flowering” phase - 50–55 m³ / ha; after flowering - 40 m³ / ha.
Harvesting can be done during the period when the stigmas begin to dry up during the phase of milk ripeness, since it is precisely at this developmental stage that the maximum sugar content falls, and later it turns into starch. Experienced farmers select corn varieties and sowing dates so as to obtain a continuous conveyor of products.
Maintenance, work of machinery, remuneration of labor, purchase of protective equipment and fertilizers cost an average of 52 thousand rubles per hectare.
The cost of cleaning one ears is 20-30 cents. One employee for a seven-hour working day can remove 2500 ears.
From the plant you can get from 1 to 2 ears of corn. Early corn from shelters is sold in bulk at 15 rubles, sown at 8 rubles. If the density of plants per hectare is 60 thousand, then you can get 80-90 thousand ears.
The profitability of corn cultivation can range from 400 to 800%, this is one of the highest rates in agriculture.
To build a silo conveyor, early-ripening and mid-ripening hybrids are grown in the ratio of 60 to 40, they are sown in two to three terms. Harvesting the silo can begin in mid-August, removing ears from early-ripening hybrids sown in early May. When sowing 50 thousand seeds per hectare receive about 56 centners of feed units and 220 centners of green mass. At the beginning of the third decade of August, they begin harvesting mid-early hybrids, which are characterized by higher productivity. Such an organization of the conveyor allows the rational use of equipment and labor, uninterruptedly harvesting silage until mid-September.
Corn is marketed on agricultural exchanges, or pre-concluded supply agreements with canneries or animal feed producers.
(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides08/18/2019