Currently, for peasants and farms specializing in growing potatoes, its in-depth processing and production of semi-finished products is relevant.
This allows entrepreneurs to reduce the cost of storing and transporting fresh potatoes, as well as make additional profits without making significant investments. In addition, potatoes are the most affordable raw materials in many regions of Russia; therefore, processing them under industrial conditions is a profitable and profitable business even for those enterprises that do not produce potatoes themselves.
About 40 years ago, “crisp” appeared on store shelves, and 10 years ago - chips with flavoring and flavoring agents. With a change in the rhythm of life in the cities, there was a demand for vacuum-packed peeled potatoes and semi-finished products - sliced and deep-frozen french fries, dumplings, and potato chops.
Potato starch and dry mashed potatoes are very popular. These products are high-value raw materials or semi-finished products not only for food industry enterprises, but also for some other industries (oil, chemical, etc.).
Down and Out trouble started
Demand determined the availability of a wide range of equipment for the production of semi-finished potato products, differing in quality, productivity and price. This led to the fact that it was very difficult for a novice entrepreneur to make a choice: it is necessary to purchase equipment not only with optimal performance, but also acceptable in price and quality. However, equipment selection is only part of the problem. In order to start production, it is necessary to perform a number of works:
- collect commercial offers (for raw materials, equipment, packaging, etc.);
- to develop a preliminary design;
- prepare documents for certification, and for this, select the available regulatory and technical documents or, if necessary, develop their own technical specifications, technological instructions, etc.
- to carry out design work;
- pick up specialized literature (recipes, technologies);
- to complete and assemble technological and auxiliary equipment;
- provide warranty and post-warranty service, as well as technical support throughout the entire period of equipment operation.
Before sending commercial inquiries to potential suppliers, an entrepreneur should decide on the following questions: what raw materials will be used for production, which assortment list is planned, what productivity is planned for production launch or further expansion (enlargement).
The preliminary design carried out at the first stage of design will help the entrepreneur with the choice of productivity and equipment, since it includes the necessary primary material for making a decision. It contains: basic technological equipment, technical specifications, technical and economic calculations.
It is clear that the entrepreneur cannot and should not perform all these work himself. Very often, a company supplying equipment and / or performing design takes part in other activities: equipment selection, installation, technical support. Some firms, such as Dialog Plus, are ready to participate in all the stages of production preparation described above as a “general contractor”, taking on the functions of coordinator and direct executor of the work. Below we describe a real example of such an interaction.
Case study In the Dialog Plus shopping center, an organization contacted who planned to purchase equipment for the production of dry mashed potatoes. Unconnected previously with the processing of agricultural products, she had no idea where to start work on this project. To make a decision on the nomenclature of supplies of equipment for the production of dry mashed potatoes, the future producer needed to study all aspects of the process. At the same time he was assigned the following tasks:
1. Prepare documents for certification. Submit product samples and a description of the process to certification bodies. Based on the test report, draw up a process instruction.
2. To carry out a preliminary design for the production of dry mashed potatoes, in which the technological line is presented, the characteristics of the main and non-standard equipment, engineering support of the equipment (supply of electricity, water, sewage) are given.
3. Prepare a prototype of dry mashed potatoes (granules and grits) using the recommended technology.
4. Determine the cost of the main set of equipment of the workshop.
Dialog Plus experts suggested using the developed scheme and, having received a positive response, began to work.
A preliminary design was drawn up for the workshop for the production of dry mashed potatoes with a capacity of 1600 kg per shift for the finished product. In addition, it reflected the following aspects of production:
- consumption of raw materials and ingredients in one shift;
- production specifications;
- basic technological equipment;
- technology system;
- Hardware Specification;
- room requirements, explication of premises.
The workshop for processing raw potatoes into dry mashed potatoes includes a full set of machines and non-standard equipment for washing, cleaning, grinding, drying, stabilizing and filling the product into kraft bags.
Then, normative and technical documentation (NTD) for the production of dry mashed potatoes was developed, while the developer granted the customer the right to produce dry mashed potatoes according to this documentation.
One of the most difficult and lengthy stages was the production of dry mashed potato samples. In order to obtain samples in accordance with the technological instruction to TU 9166-01-54954240-02, it is necessary to reproduce the entire technological process “from and to”.
To obtain dry mashed potatoes were used:
- fresh potatoes of the Lorch variety in accordance with GOST 26832-86 - 20 kg;
- sodium bisulfite (E 223) according to GOST 902-76-402;
- distilled monoglyceride (E 471) according to TU 10-04-02-48-89 - 15 g.
The process of making dried mashed potato samples included the following steps.
1. Raw potatoes were washed from impurities in a sink in running tap water. The content of residual pollution did not exceed 0.1%.
2. Cleaning was carried out in a soaking machine with a load of 6-7 kg for 2.5 minutes.
3. Inspection and post-treatment was carried out manually. Particular thoroughness of the inspection was caused by the use of potatoes from the 2001 harvest (shelf life of 7–8 months). The amount of waste was about 40%.
4. The peeled potatoes were cut into columns with a cross section of 10x10 mm.
5. Sliced potatoes were immersed in a tank with a solution of sodium bisulfite, a concentration of 0.1% for sulfur dioxide. The immersion time is 8-10 minutes, the volume of the solution is 20 l.
6. Sulphonated potatoes were passed through a potato juice squeezer. The moisture content of the pulp after squeezing is 45–50%, and the particle size is 3 mm. The juice obtained contained 450–500 g of free starch (in terms of starch with a moisture content of 20%).
7. The resulting pulp was cooked at a temperature of 95–105 ° C using a steam cooker and evaporated to a residual moisture content of 35%.
8. During cooking, an emulsion of monoglyceride was introduced into the mass of potatoes. The emulsion was obtained by intensive mixing of the melt of crystalline distilled monoglyceride and amounted to 5%, the calculated concentration in dry puree of 0.7%.
9. Before cooling, citric acid was added to the evaporated mass in the form of a solution with a concentration of 1% in the amount of 10 g per weight of the product. 10. The cooled mass was molded on an extruder at a design pressure of 4–5 atm. through filters with a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 3 mm. The size (length) of the obtained granules is 3-10 mm.
11. The granules were dried at an air humidity of 60–70% and a temperature of 25 ° C for 72 hours. Residual humidity - 15–18%.
12. The dried granules were crushed into granules (particle size 0.5–1 mm) using a crusher; on cereals (flour) up to 0.3 mm using a mill. As a result of the work done, the amount of product obtained (in terms of humidity 10%) was 2200 g, 11% yield for Lorch potatoes with a shelf life of up to 8 months; the amount of non-food waste amounted to 36–38%, the amount of free starch 2–2.5% of the total mass of potatoes.
The result of the work (it took a considerable amount of time) of the employees of the Dialog Plus and Information Agency of Nikolaev TF was a package of information services on the topic “Production of dry mashed potatoes” with an explanatory note.
The cost of information services amounted to about 32 thousand rubles *, equipment - 73 thousand cu * (in this case, in the case of equipment purchase in the same company, this cost was taken into account).
After analyzing the results, the customer decided to purchase equipment for the production of dry mashed potatoes.
Equipment for the production of dry mashed potatoes
For the installation of a potato processing workshop, a production area of at least 260 m? Is required.
- productivity 16, 000 kg per shift for raw materials, 1, 600 kg / shift for finished products;
- installed capacity of 177 kW (if it is possible to provide the enterprise with steam from the existing boiler house 250 kg / h) or 357 kW (if steam comes from steam generators);
- cold water consumption no more than 20 m / h,
- discharge into the sewer - 5.5 m? / h.
The line is served by no more than 20 people.
The following is an option to complete the workshop for the production of dry mashed potatoes (table 1).
Approximate configuration of the potato products workshop
Productivity, t / h
Dosing hopper (feeder)
Screw hopper feeder
Abrasive soaking machine
Table tray (unloader for CTO)
Inspection conveyor (roller conveyor)
Sulphonator hopper with 2 feeders
Stand, production table
Shaper (spinning top with cutting device)
Carts are rack
Roller grain conditioner
Bag sewing machine
The production of dry mashed potatoes can be supplemented by a product that is in great demand - instant mashed potatoes. This does not require additional costs, only equipment included in the production line is used.
The average market price for sets for the production of dry mashed potatoes is 350 thousand cu, however, when developing technical documentation, it was possible to improve the product preparation process and significantly reduce the cost of the production line.
Production of other potato products
The organization of the production of crisp and molded chips is not a very complicated matter, which does not require significant financial costs (the cost of a set for the production of crisp with a productivity of 50 kg / h is about 20 thousand cu) *. The company's specialists use ready-made solutions and have many years of experience in the supply of production lines in Russia and neighboring countries. The production of dry mashed potatoes and potato starch is a more complex, lengthy and expensive process. Therefore, when designing such industries, an individual approach is necessary: for each client, an own production strategy is developed, equipment is selected that is optimized for productivity and price. In addition, the assortment of potato products is constantly expanding.
For example, fresh potatoes, properly processed, in itself is a commodity (GOST 26545-85, GOST 7176-85). The production of fresh ware potatoes sold through a retail chain can be very profitable, as does not require significant equipment costs, and the technological process is limited to cleaning, washing and storage. In addition, from fresh potatoes produced:
- sulfitated potatoes;
- dried potatoes;
- crispy potatoes;
- frozen ("free");
- flour, mashed potatoes, grains;
- the drinks;
In conclusion, it should be noted that the processing of potatoes, especially into crisps, chips, frozen ("fries"), mashed potatoes and grains, is becoming increasingly popular in Russia. Several decades ago, potato processing was often based on state-owned enterprises and was organized in large populated areas. Industrial technologies for the production and processing of potatoes were developed. At present, in Russia and neighboring countries, new technologies, including and energy-saving, mastered by small enterprises - manufacturers and suppliers of food equipment. The experience of food equipment suppliers shows that the production of food products from potatoes is a profitable and profitable business. Costs are paid back in about 3-5 months after the start of production, subject to the availability of cheap raw materials, guaranteed sales of finished products, uninterrupted production with high productivity.
* Prices are given on the price list of TF “Dialog Plus” at the end of June 2002
* The article is more than 8 years old. May contain outdated data