Crayfish is a gourmet product that is very popular in Russia. For the inhabitants of the south, the use of crayfish as food is more common than for northerners, since this animal lives in water bodies that warm up to at least 16 degrees in the summer. However, in recent years, due to poor ecology, crayfish are becoming rare in southern rivers. Since the demand for this delicacy remains unchanged, the artificial breeding of crayfish is a very lucrative business.
To open a cancer breeding enterprise, you need to register as an IP or LLC by selecting OKVED code 01.21 (breeding pets). If you are not going to give the goods to wholesalers, but plan to engage in retail trade yourself, you should add code 52.23 (retail sale of fish, crustaceans and mollusks).
Crayfish are bred in artificial ponds and aquariums. We will look at both technologies.
A place for a pond is best chosen near the river. The best soil for the pond is oily or skinny clay, since it contains more than 40% clay particles, and in the wet state it is dense and viscous. For the bed of the pond, heavy and medium loams are also suitable. For the construction of the pond, waterproofing materials, for example, pond film, can be used. The cost of 375 rubles per square meter. Service life is 25 years. For breeding crayfish, drainage ponds are used, since it is possible to regulate the necessary water level in them, as well as drain the pond bed if necessary, in order to get the crayfish. In the body of the dam lay a bottom tubular drainage of iron, cast-iron or asbestos-cement pipes. The drain consists of a lounger with a shutter and a pit.
The construction of one pond costs at least 70 thousand rubles.
The cancer industry is equipped with several interconnected ponds ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 hectares. In flowing ponds, water supply is provided from continuously operating water sources. Wintering ponds should be located as close as possible to the water supply pond in order to reduce the falling water tray, since it is difficult to care for it in winter and the water cools with a longer length of the tray, which is bad for crayfish. Growing ponds should be near the fallopian so that transplantation can be carried out quickly. If the size of the territory of the river farm does not allow you to place several ponds, then you can use only one, but provide pools for jigging yearlings.
To make the bed of the pond waterproof, a layer of pebble mixed with clay is laid out. The bottom is given such a shape that a drop occurs at the place of water discharge. A film is placed on top, then bitumen is poured, onto which a layer of cement mortar is applied in a ratio of 3: 1 with sand. A metal mesh is inserted into the bottom of the drain. The banks should be steep, a hog is made around the pond so that during rain the sewage does not pollute the pond. Near the coast you need to create a shadow by planting trees. The depth of water near the coast is not more than 30-40 centimeters.
The recommended size of nursery pools is at least 2.5 by 5 meters, a depth of 40-60 centimeters. The pool is concreted, a layer of silt or sand is laid at the bottom, as well as pieces of slate and pipe (shelter). In pools you need to produce aeration. They are used to remove larvae from eggs and the subsequent cultivation of crayfish to the stage of underyearlings. Aerator for a pond costs from 5 to 20 thousand rubles, the price depends on the volume of water.
The crayfish pond should have shallow and deep parts. The density of the crayfish should be no more than five individuals per square meter of the reservoir. The population of crayfish in a body of water occurs no earlier than two weeks after the gulf of water.
The cost of one kilogram of live crayfish can range from 200 to 1000 rubles, it all depends on the size of the animals and the time of year. If possible, cancer farms prefer to catch egg females in natural waters in April and May. In June, larvae are caught. They are found in females, so they are easy to assemble.
Raw or boiled food (fish waste, shellfish, vegetables, meat waste, etc.) is given to the crayfish as food. The daily food norm is considered to be the amount of food, which is 3-4 percent of the cancer body weight, although an exact norm has not been established. The main thing is that the food does not remain for the next feeding, otherwise it will pollute the pond, and this will damage the crayfish. In addition, to avoid contamination, food should be loaded into feeders so that the amount of food consumed by the crayfish can be monitored. Feeding is done once every two days and only in the warm season. In winter, crayfish do not move or grow; they do not need food.
Fertilization of females occurs in the fall, in October or November. By the beginning of summer, caviar develops under the tail of a female. The larvae have a length of 9-11 mm, they are kept under the tail for about 10 days, after which they are disconnected. One female produces an average of 30 offspring. One male can impregnate 4-5 females. Sexual differences in cancers are poorly expressed. In females, the first pair of abdominal legs is underdeveloped, in a male, the first two pairs are strongly developed. The abdomen of the female is wider than the abdomen of the male. Males are larger than females of the same age. The sexual openings of the male are located at the base of the fifth pair of legs, at the female - at the base of the third pair of legs.
The first crayfish collection is carried out in August of the second year, when the crayfish reach the desired size.
If there are suitable facilities, then you can breed crayfish in aquariums. The capacity of the aquarium should be at least 250 liters. The main condition is that the carcass metal should not come into contact with water, since contact with the metal affects the biological environment, and crayfish react very sharply to this. The aquarium is equipped with a bottom water supply system, a filtration and aeration system. All this is easy to get at any pet store. The cost of one aquarium is at least 50 thousand rubles. Fine soil and gravel and sand are used as soil in the aquarium; stones or driftwood are used as shelters. The advantage of breeding crayfish in aquariums is that it is easier to monitor the development of animals and control their conditions, in particular the quality of water, which is of great importance. In the aquarium, it is easy to maintain the desired temperature (20-24 degrees), which means that the growth of crayfish occurs much faster, because they do not stop developing due to lower temperatures. The period of embryonic development of cancers is reduced to 3-4 months. The density of planting in the aquarium for 250 liters - 50 crayfish.
It is difficult to give some universal calculations of the initial investment for opening a cancer farm, since it all depends on the breeding method, the time of start of breeding, the conditions of keeping animals, the number of cancers, the price of products sold, etc. Entrepreneurs involved in this business note its main positive side: profitability can reach up to 300 percent, however, it should be borne in mind that income can only be obtained in a year.