Processed cheeses are very popular in Russia. In the wide assortment of processed cheeses, anyone can find one that is to their taste. Processed cheeses vary in shape, texture, flavor, color. Due to the small packaging, cheese packaging is quite inexpensive, so processed cheese is available to a wide range of people.
Eating processed cheese is good for health, because processed cheese is a kind of milk protein concentrate. Proteins and fats contained in processed cheese are well balanced and almost completely absorbed by the body. The degree of protein digestibility in processed cheeses exceeds this indicator in hard cheeses, as processed cheeses contain soluble proteins. Cream cheese does not contain cholesterol and is recommended for older people and people suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Cream cheese also contains other substances necessary for humans, for example, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins A, O, B2. Quality processed cheeses are used in clinical nutrition for tuberculosis, intestinal, liver, and bone fractures.
Cream cheese can be consumed separately, and is also part of a large number of dishes: salads, soups, snacks, toppings for pies, etc.
The production of processed cheese is an attractive area of business not only because of the popularity of this product among the population, but also because of the relatively low cost of equipment and the relative simplicity of the production process.
Processed cheeses are slice, sausage, pasty, sweet. All these types are united by one thing: they are made from natural hard cheeses with the addition of melting salts, dairy products, spices, spices, flavoring fillers. There is no specific recipe for processed cheese. The assortment of products of processed cheese producers is limited only by the imagination of the technologist and common sense.
The taste, smell, texture of processed cheese, and its shelf life depend on the quality of the raw materials. To reduce the cost of production, processed cheese manufacturers use hard cheeses that are rejected in shape or consistency.
Sliced processed cheese is made from rennet cheese with the addition of various dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, butter). The cheese is cut with briquettes and packaged in 30, 60 and 100 grams. Sausage cheese is produced on the basis of low-fat hard cheese with the addition of rennet cheese and dairy products. The characteristic taste of the cheese is given with the help of caraway seeds, pepper and smoking. Sausage cheese is packed in loaves with a diameter of 6-8 centimeters and weighing up to 3 kilograms. Pasty cheeses are high in fat. They are packed in plastic cups or boxes that are sealed with a foil lid. Sweet cheeses can be both slice and pasty. Beet sugar and various fillers give them a sweet taste.
The process of manufacturing processed cheese begins with the preparation of raw materials. Cheeses are washed, cleaned of film and paraffin, sometimes soaked in serum. Bulk components are sieved. Next, the raw material is loaded into the installation in which the grinding of the mass occurs. When the cheese mass is ground, the rest of the necessary ingredients and melting salts are added to it. As melting salts, one- and two-substituted potassium and sodium salts of phosphoric, citric and other acids are used. The amount of salts is 2-4 percent of the total mass. The crushed raw materials are thoroughly mixed in a mixer with salts, after which the process of ripening of the mass begins. This process lasts from 30 minutes to 3 hours. Maturation is necessary for the complete penetration of salts into the mass and their interaction with proteins.
After ripening, the cheese mass enters the melting boiler, equipped with a steam jacket and a stirrer. The boiler cover is tightly closed, the vacuum pump removes unpleasant odors from the product. Melting lasts up to 20 minutes at high temperature (75-90 degrees) with constant stirring.
When the mass cools down to 60 degrees, they begin to pack it up on a filling and capping machine. Then the packaged processed cheese is cooled on a tunnel cooling machine or in a room with a temperature of 8-10 degrees.
Several types of equipment for the production of processed cheese are presented on the Russian market. Usually a production line is completed, consisting of a meat grinder, a melter, a vacuum syringe, a table clipper or a filling machine, a desktop, a thermal smoke chamber, a refrigerating chamber. The cost of the line is from 800 thousand rubles. The thermal smoke chamber is intended for the production of sausage cheese and may not be included in the line.
It is possible to produce processed cheese using a thermocutter, which is a relatively compact unit equipped with a hermetically sealed bowl with a capacity of 120 cubic decimeters, a grinder, and a mixer. Melting takes place in the same bowl by supplying steam and vigorous stirring. Unloading of finished cheese is done through a pneumatic valve. Packing and cooling of the product on the turbocutter are not provided. Installation is controlled by remote control. After loading the components, the selected program starts working, which controls the speed and degree of grinding, melting temperature, etc. The cost of a thermocutter is from a million rubles. The clipper costs from 60 thousand rubles, a vacuum syringe - from 150 thousand rubles, a refrigerator - from 90 thousand rubles.
Opening a workshop for the production of processed cheese will require a room with a total area of about 150 square meters. The working area needed to accommodate the equipment is about 60-80 square meters. In addition, the production should have storage facilities for raw materials and finished products, in which the temperature will be maintained at 2-6 degrees, a workshop for the preparation of raw materials, household and administrative premises, an office for a food production technologist.
The design of the production facility costs from 2 thousand rubles per square meter of area. If you use a room in which food production was previously located, then re-equipment will cost much cheaper. The workshop should be well lit, it is desirable that the lighting is 60 percent natural, for artificial lighting, as a rule, fluorescent lamps are used. The height of the ceilings should be at least 3.5 meters. 2.5 meter walls are tiled. The room should be heated, provided with cold and hot water and well ventilated. The layout of production equipment, as well as the layout of communication systems are contained in the production project, which is compiled on the basis of sanitary and hygienic standards, fire safety standards, labor protection standards. Based on the project, Rospotrebnadzor issues permits, the design of which also costs a lot of money.
According to the most conservative estimates, starting investments for opening own production of processed cheese on a rented area will amount to about 3 million rubles. The profitability of the production of processed cheese, according to experts, is 30-40 percent. Investments can pay off for a period of 18 months.
Before an entrepreneur opening his workshop for the production of processed cheese, inevitably there will be a problem of purchasing raw materials. Typically, raw materials are taken at cheese and dairy enterprises, buying products that, in appearance, have not passed control and cannot be sold, but are suitable for processing into processed cheese.
Cream cheese can be made from powdered raw materials. At the same time, its cost is significantly reduced, but the taste and smell of the product is also inferior to cheese made in the classical way. For the production of cheese from powdered raw materials, dried cheese powders, sodium caseinate, skimmed milk powder, butter or vegetable fat, melting salts, stabilizers, citric acid, flavoring and aromatic additives are used. The product is classified as dairy, since the bulk of the ingredients are made from milk. The cost of a kilogram of cheese powder is from 200 rubles. The consumption of cheese powder in the production of processed cheese depends on the recipe. From one kilogram of powder, from 5 kilograms of processed cheese can be made.
Processed cheese from powdered raw materials can be made on a conventional cheese melter in one step. Raw materials are loaded at the same time, mixed, crushed and heated. Productivity of the line can be increased by preparing in a separate bath a warm fat-free emulsion and preliminary melting of fat. The duration of the cycle with this production can be 5-10 minutes.
As mentioned above, processed cheeses are packed in foil or plastic packaging of different volumes. Packaging is made to order and for a large batch costs from 20 cents a piece. Food packaging must comply with GOST Z 51074-2003. The name of the product, “processed cheese, ” is mandatory on the label. Additional information can be indicated next to the name, for example, “goat cheese”, “bold”, “lomovoe”, etc. If in the manufacture it was used not dairy, but vegetable fat and protein, then on the package it is indicated: “processed cheese product”. Further, in accordance with GOST, the name and location of the manufacturer, its legal address, the mass fraction of fat in dry matter as a percentage, the manufacturer’s trademark (if any), net weight, cheese composition, food additives (indicated using group names and are indicated encoding), nutritional value per 100 grams of product, storage conditions, manufacturing date, packaging date, shelf life, method of use, information on conformity assessment. If all the information does not fit on the container, then you can use an insert sheet.
Registration of your own trademark is not mandatory, but is usually done to protect your business from unscrupulous competitors. The state duty for registering a trademark is 2700 rubles. Patent offices provide assistance in registering. Full support of the registration procedure will cost 20 thousand rubles.
Since cheese is a mass consumption product, it is necessary to issue a certificate that will confirm its quality. You can issue a certificate at a certification center, the cost is from 15 thousand rubles.
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