The business associated with the processing of meat raw materials is highly profitable from 50% or more. The cost of the resulting products is at least twice the cost of the feedstock. An additional advantage of this type of business is the opportunity to start with small investments by opening a mini-workshop. Of course, competition is also present in this segment. Moreover, the main competitors of mini-shops are large meat processing enterprises, which also offer a wide range of meat smoked products, but among consumers there are always those who prefer "home" smoked products made in a small workshop, but of consistently high quality. It is no secret that raw materials that are still fresh are sent to the smokehouse at meat processing enterprises, but their shelf life and sales are already expiring. Processing of raw materials in smoked products allows the manufacturer to significantly reduce the loss of unsold products and increase its profitability. Another question is that the quality of such products leaves much to be desired. Small shops buy fresh raw materials, so the quality of their products inspires more confidence among buyers.
So, the goal of your workshop is to profit from the production of hot smoked meat. The range of products that you will produce mainly includes poultry meat. Suitable for smoking are whole chicken carcasses, as well as halves and its individual parts: chicken legs, thighs, wings, breasts, etc. Working with poultry is easier than with other types of meat, but in the future you can significantly expand your assortment by making smoked pork.
Although, as we have already mentioned, new players have every chance to take their place in this highly competitive market, it is still not worthwhile to start solving organizational issues until a thorough study of the activities of competitors and determining the capacity of the regional market. Consider both large enterprises engaged in meat processing (including the production of smoked products) and small workshops, even if they are located in another district of the city or even a suburb. Large companies sell their products, as a rule, through various retail chains and company stores. Small ones deliver their smoked meats to individual sales outlets in various markets, to grocery stores in sleeping areas, etc. Medium specialized companies that manufacture a wide range of meat products sell them in their stalls set up in the area of grocery markets.
When analyzing, consider not only the assortment and quality of competitors' products, but also the level of their prices. Think about whether you can offer products of the same or even higher quality, but at a lower price. The small workshop has an advantage over the large one: it requires less money and a small staff for opening it. Accordingly, you save on salaries and expenses for the purchase of equipment.
Often, small producers begin their activities illegally. They make smoked meats even without their own workshop, opening production directly in the apartment, and sell them right on the street. Sometimes they even manage to get to the shelves of market outlets. In this case, they use documents issued for raw materials by wholesalers (certificate and veterinary certificate). This option, of course, is unacceptable. You can develop recipes and work out production technologies, but your “trial” products should not go on sale. For retail sales, you need to submit your smoked products for inspection to a test laboratory and receive a large number of different permits.
Choose a room for the workshop
It is more profitable for a novice entrepreneur to rent a premises for a smokehouse than to buy it as a property. Work first on the rented area. If the business goes uphill, you can always invest in buying your own workshop. Moreover, by that time you may already need large areas. Between the tenant and the lessor is drawn up by the contract, which should include the following items:
1. The subject of the contract.
1.1. Lease agreement for non-residential premises in accordance with the objectives specified in the charter tasks of the tenant.
1.2. Lease term (indicating the day, month and year of the beginning of the lease and the end).
2. Responsibilities of the Landlord.
2.1. Within 5 days, the premises must be leased in accordance with the technical condition at the time of conclusion of the Agreement.
2.2. Eliminate the effects of damage or accidents at the time of rental, if any.
3. Rights and obligations of the Lessee.
3.1. Keep the premises in accordance with fire and sanitary regulations.
3.2. Carry out maintenance on the premises.
3.3. All planned restructuring is carried out with the consent of the Landlord.
3.4. Notify the Landlord about the vacancy in 2 weeks, provide it in good condition according to the act.
This document also indicates the terms of payment for the lease of the building, the amount and terms of payment for utility and maintenance bills, indicates under what circumstances the Lease Agreement for the building can be terminated at the initiative of the Landlord. Typically, this is the destruction of the building by the tenant, violation of obligations under the contract (non-payment of rent, utility bills). On the part of the lessee, premature termination of the Agreement may be justified if the lessor does not comply with contractual obligations. At the very end of the document, the legal addresses of each of the parties that signed it are indicated.
Properly drawn up lease agreement will save you a lot of effort, nerves and money in case of any disagreement with your landlord. A copy of this document is submitted to the tax office when registering the company. Also attached is the charter of the enterprise and the employment contract concluded between workers and employers. A similar document is prepared for rental cars and office space.
Since your chosen area of work has a high level of risk according to the classification of SES, special requirements are placed on the premises for such a workshop. The premises that were previously used as dining rooms and located in industrial areas are best suited for such purposes. Indeed, according to the Law on Sanitary Protection Zones, your workshop should be located no less than three hundred meters from residential areas and environmentally harmful industrial enterprises. It must be provided with hot and cold water supply, sewage, smoke traps, container washing system, heating, air conditioning and ventilation. Bactericidal lamps should be installed in rooms with smoking equipment, the floor and walls to a height of up to 1.5 meters should be tiled, and above painted with oil paint (such a surface is easy to wash and treat with an antiseptic). To organize a smokehouse will require about 100 square meters. meters of production area and several additional premises of a small area. The fire safety shield should be within a radius of five meters from the location of the camera. In addition, you need to take care of the purchase of foam and powder fire extinguishers (to extinguish wires in case of possible fire).
Smoked poultry production technology
A poor finished product will never produce a good finished product. Experts advise beginners who are just starting to work with a new supplier, before buying a large batch, first take a few pounds for a sample to check the quality of the meat, determine the percentage of rejects and size. If the quality of the trial batch suits you, then you can continue cooperation.
First, the raw materials for the manufacture of smoked meats goes to production. It is delivered from the supplier’s boning workshops in special plastic boxes, sorted by name and with accompanying documents - waybills. This document must indicate the date of shipment of poultry meat, name, number of boxes, weight and price of each product. The document must bear the stamp and signature of the director of the supplying company. Upon acceptance of the goods, its weight must be checked. After checking all the documents and paying for the products, the meat is sent to the washing baths. While the meat is being processed, a spice brine is prepared, which is then poured into the injector for injection. Brine is used to give the product taste. At the next stage, chicken products are attached to stainless hooks and hung on a frame for smoking. Smoking is carried out in special smoking chambers using juniper or beech wood chips. Chips consumption per 100 kg of production is about 1.5 kg. Then, the finished product is removed from the smoking chamber, packed in film and in cardboard boxes, and then sent to the warehouse. For a warehouse of finished products, you can use a special room or a refrigerator.
For the operation of the smokehouse will require special equipment. It includes washing baths (one for poultry and the other for washing equipment, both of which must be signed), cutting table, racks for defrosting raw materials, refrigeration equipment, a cold smoked machine, a hot smoked smoke machine, a meat injector, containers for brine and meat, knives, wood chips for smoking, stainless steel hooks for products, vacuum packaging equipment. The knives used for cutting meat must be in special sheaths. You will also need work clothes for staff - aprons and shoes. Work clothes should be changed daily.
The main of this equipment are, of course, smoking chambers. Currently, the Russian market has a wide selection of cameras from different manufacturers and with different operating temperature and technical characteristics. There is more expensive imported equipment that is suitable if you intend to process 8-10 tons of raw materials per day. For smaller production enterprises, a domestic smokehouse is better suited, which can ensure profitability even when loading from 250-300 kg of raw materials per day. If necessary, in the future it will be possible to assemble a whole line of several such plants, which will allow to process the same 8-10 tons of raw materials per day. The cost of such a line will ultimately be much less than European-made equipment, however, according to businessmen, it is less convenient to maintain.
For the mini-workshop, at the first stage of its operation, a thermal smoke chamber, which is also called a smokehouse, two refrigerated cabinets, a refrigerated industrial chamber and stainless steel cutting tables, will be enough. To the smoke chamber for such production several basic requirements are imposed. So, smoking time on average should not exceed one and a half hours, with a one-time loading of up to 100 kilograms. Moreover, such production volumes should be provided with equipment of relatively small dimensions and capacity. For example, the weight of the smokehouse should not exceed 120 kilograms, and the power consumption should correspond to 0.6 kW / h. The power supply is preferably three-phase, each of the phases must reach a power of 220V and in no case less.
Firewood is the main source of smoke, but in order for production to be profitable, wood consumption should be extremely small and be around 1.0m / hour. Smokehouse equipment also deserves special attention. Smokehouse equipment consists of a smoke generator and a set of skewers for large pieces of meat. For the installation and smooth operation of the equipment, certain conditions must be observed, in particular, 4 square meters will be required. meters of free space with 220V outlets in the immediate vicinity. One of them is designed specifically for the smokehouse, and the second - to provide portable lighting. In the workshop for the uninterrupted operation of the equipment, the temperature must be maintained above 16 ° C (optimally 18-20 ° C).
Installation and installation of equipment are carried out in accordance with the production plan. Installation of ventilation and freezing equipment is carried out before the installation of technological equipment. And the latter, depending on the type, may require the implementation of commissioning.
Smoked meat production organization requirements
Production of smoking meat products, in addition to the premises where the main technological processes are carried out (cutting, defrosting), must be necessarily equipped with the following rooms or zones: a cooled room for a daily supply of raw materials; premises for packaging of finished products; a refrigerator for temporary storage of finished products; premises for the sanitary processing of returnable containers; a room for drying and storage of containers;
a container warehouse with a site for its repair; a room for storing sawdust and fuel, as well as detergents and disinfectants, smoke liquid; storage room for auxiliary and packaging materials. It is very important to comply with the requirement of separation of technological flows.
According to the requirements, smoking chambers must be equipped with tightly closing doors, hatches and exhaust ventilation of mechanical stimulation. Smokehouse elements (ramrod, slats, etc.) should be in double quantity. They must be sanitized at least once per shift, and the chambers and stands are treated once a week.
Thermometers, psychrometers and moisture meters should be installed in the smoke chambers to control temperature and humidity. Their testimonies are recorded in special magazines. Raw materials for the production of smoked products must comply with the requirements of regulatory documents. Finished products must be quickly cooled (to a temperature of 20 degrees), packaged and placed in a refrigerator. Until the moment of sale, hot smoked products should be stored at a temperature of -2 ... + 2, cold smoked - -5 ... 0 degrees.
Tables, cutting boards that are used for processing meat must be washed with a hot solution of soda ash (5%), then disinfected, rinsed and dried. The export of finished products and the supply of raw materials must be carried out through separate entrances and elevators. Transportation, storage and sale of finished products of hot and cold smoking should be carried out in accordance with the requirements for perishable products.
You have to coordinate the opening of your production with various authorities: SES, Rosprirodnadzor, veterinary and fire services (the Fire Supervision Department checks the status of the fire alarm, wiring and other potentially dangerous systems at the enterprise), Rostekhnadzor. Moreover, SES will conduct inspections on a monthly basis, selecting products for laboratory analysis directly from the stream. For each position of your products you need to issue quality certificates. Smoke production does not require a license, but is certified without fail.
To work in the smokehouse you will need to attract additional labor. Such a business is great for a family format. It is possible to increase the profitability of the project if the members of your family and / or you yourself will work at your enterprise for the first one and a half to two years. This will help reduce wage costs. To work in a small workshop will require at least two to three workers. In addition, you will need to hire an accountant who will deal with statistical reports, tax deductions and analysis of financial condition. If the volume of your production is quite small, then you can turn to the services of an incoming accountant, and engage in the conduct of the production process, the purchase of raw materials and the sale of finished products.
Costs and income of the smokehouse
The main expenses for organizing a mini-smokehouse with a hot and cold smoking line include rental of industrial and domestic premises, repair (if necessary), rental of a car for transportation of raw materials and finished products, purchase of raw materials and necessary equipment. The rental price of a room depends on the area, its location and condition. It can be from 300 rubles per 1 sq. Km. meter. You can rent a car for 10 thousand rubles per month (the exact cost of renting a car depends on the degree of depreciation). The total cost of equipment, if you purchase it in a used state, will be from 300 thousand rubles. Monthly expenses for the purchase of raw materials, spices, gasoline and the purchase of the office will be from 200 thousand rubles per month. Do not forget about the payment of utilities (water, gas) and electricity, as well as the wages of workers in the workshop and the necessary contributions to funds. There will be no advertising costs at the first stage of work. Но в дальнейшем стоит задуматься о продвижении своей торговой марки и повышении ее узнаваемости среди потребителей. Для этого используется наружная реклама, а также реклама в местах продаж.
Как утверждают специалисты, ежедневная выручка коптильного цеха должна составлять минимум 115-120 % от общей суммы закупки сырья. Добиться этого можно путем грамотного ценообразования, а также разработки собственной технологии производства. Кроме того, необходимо определиться с ценообразованием, а также тщательно соблюдать все технологии приготовления продукции. Готовые копченые полуфабрикаты можно реализовывать через крупные оптовые базы и мелкими партиями в магазинах города и окрестностях.
Еще один канал сбыта куриных копченостей – это различные заведения общественного питания. Куриные копчености могут подаваться, как самостоятельное блюдо, или входить в состав различных салатов и первых блюд. Такая продукция популярна в местах общественного питания: в ресторанах, кафе, на уличных площадках. Также она может реализовываться через мелкие оптовые базы.
Начинать производство лучше всего с небольшого ассортимента (три-пять наименований продукции). В дальнейшем вы сможете расширить его за счет производства различных нарезок и пивных наборов.
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