The farm business is considered one of the most relevant and promising in our country, especially in light of recent political events. However, even before, many entrepreneurs turned their attention to this area, considering it the most suitable for investment. Indeed, the farming business involves a wide range of opportunities, which include livestock, beekeeping, crop production and other areas. In addition, its profitability can be significantly increased by switching to virtually waste-free production (in the first place, this applies to livestock and crop production). For example, when breeding animals for meat, depending on their type, you can also sell milk and dairy products, meat products, wool, hides, manure for fertilizer, etc.
Competition in the agricultural sector is still relatively small. Entrepreneurs and investors are confused by the need for long-term investments, bureaucratic obstacles, problems with implementation ... However, as the experience of many successful manufacturers shows, all these investments, when properly managed, quickly pay off. It is not a problem to pick up and acquire land: in Russian villages and villages there are still enough empty farms. The cost of land starts at 60 thousand rubles per hectare, but, of course, the exact amount will depend on the region, location and area of the site.
What agricultural business is the most profitable? Analysts are among the first in terms of profitability pig breeding. This direction is beneficial because pigs increase body weight faster than other farm animals raised for meat. Compared to cattle, pig growth is 10-12 times better. If the farmer does not save on feed and selects the right diet, then by six months young growth reaches a weight of 100 kg and can go to slaughter. Also, pigs are famous for their fertility (in terms of the length of the growing cycle, pigs are in second place after poultry farming), relative unpretentiousness and resistance to various diseases.
There are three main types of pig farms. The first includes large industrial-type complexes designed for large herds of over 12 thousand heads. The second direction is large farms and agricultural enterprises, which contain herds from 100 to 12 thousand heads. Finally, the third type is personal subsidiary and small farms with a livestock of up to 100 animals. In this article we will consider the procedure for compiling a business plan for small and medium-sized enterprises. A long-term business plan is necessary in any case. Moreover, you can not do without it if you plan to take loans, loans, take part in government programs to support domestic producers. It allows you to pre-determine the necessary amount of land for the arrangement of a pig farm, plan construction costs, estimate demand and volumes of future production, calculate the main economic indicators of your business.
The business case for the pig business
In general, pigs have a number of biological characteristics that make their breeding a profitable business. The main such feature is the fecundity of pigs: for one farrow, a sow can bring up to 20 piglets (but on average, about 12). In other breeds of pets, rates are 10 times lower. For example, a cow or ewe usually brings one calf or lamb, respectively. The period of gestation (gestation) in a pig is 114-115 days, and the period of feeding - from 30 to 60 days. Thus, in just one year from a sow you can get at least two farrowing and about 20-25 piglets. This indicator can be increased by reducing the suction period of piglets to 30 days. That is, in just two years it is quite possible to get five farrowing and up to 60 piglets from one sow.
The precocity of pigs is explained by their high growth rates. Young growth grows 10-12 times faster than cattle. A pig is born with an average weight of 1.2 kg. However, in just the first week of his life, his weight doubles. With proper feeding, six-month-old pigs reach a live weight of 100 kg or more, which allows them to be used for meat. Thus, the “productivity” of one sow due to the offspring brought by it makes up to 3 tons of meat per year, which exceeds the similar indicators of cattle by almost 3.5 times.
Despite this, pigs are quite economical animals in terms of nutrition. For every kilogram of growth, they spend 30-35% less feed than cattle. This is due to the better digestibility of nutrients: for example, chicken absorbs only one fifth of the feed, and pigs - more than a third.
Slaughter yield (carcass weight relative to live weight) in a pig is 85%, and in young cattle - no more than 60%.
Breeding and buying animals
Currently, there are over one hundred breeds of domestic pigs. Depending on the direction of productivity, all breeds are divided into bacon (landrace, temvors, etc.), meat-sebaceous, or universal (large white, hampshire, Polish-Chinese duroc, etc.), as well as sebaceous (large black, mangalitsky, Berkshire, etc.). In our country, meat and bacon breeds (Estonian bacon, Duroc, Landras, Hampshire, Urzhum and others), as well as universal meat and greasy breeds (large white, Ukrainian steppe white, Siberian northern, Lithuanian white, Ukrainian steppe ripple) are most widespread., Murom, etc.). More than 85% of the pig livestock in the CIS countries are large white animals.
A large white breed of pig was bred in the UK. In our country, it has been bred since the end of the 19th century. Now this breed is considered the most common. Pigs of large white breed have a large body weight, a long, wide, rounded trunk. Their head is medium in size with a wide forehead and a slightly concave profile. Ears are set horizontally, chest, withers, back and lower back wide, ham large and fleshy. Animals of this breed are distinguished by a strong constitution. They relate mainly to the meat-greasy type, however, among them there are representatives of the meat and greasy types of productivity. Adult sows can reach a mass of 280 kg (average weight - 250 kg), and wild boars - 380 kg (average weight 350 kg, but some individuals gain up to 500 kg).
The popularity of this breed is due to its high fertility. Adult sows bring about ten piglets weighing about 1 kg per farrow. Often in the litter there are also 15 piglets. Milk sows of this breed - about 50 kg or more. Masses per 100 kg of large white pigs reach 183-195 days of age with gains of over 700 g and feed consumption per 1 kg of live weight gain of about 4 feeds. units The slaughter yield of fattened adult animals is 80%, and young growth is 73%.
If you do not have much experience in pig breeding and knowledge in this area, then for a start it is worth stopping at representatives of a large white breed. Experts advise purchasing piglets aged one to two months. There are no strict time limits; the main thing is that the first seven days of the piglets receive breast milk. Under favorable conditions and good nutrition, piglets weigh 5-7 kg by the age of one month, and by 7-8 weeks they gain 14-18 kg. When buying piglets, pay attention to their appearance and behavior. A healthy pig is active, has rhythmic breathing, smooth shiny bristles, tail bent upwards with a ringlet. His eyes should be shiny, his eyes move, the mucous membranes of his eyes and mouth, as well as the patch should be pink. The skin of piglets of this breed also, despite the name, should have a pinkish tint. Prefer animals with a large, long body, a straight, broad back, a heavy head, strong, well-placed limbs and a straight snout profile. Such signs indicate rapid and continued growth. Do not buy pigs with a light head, snub snout, sagging back and lower back and thin legs - all these are signs of breeding. Pay attention to how the piglet eats. It is best if he does not suck feed, but captures it with his mouth. When buying a pig for breeding, inspect its nipples. They should not be depressed, should be located symmetrically at a great distance from each other.
For an average farm, it is recommended to purchase about 300-350 heads. For a small farm to start, 50 goals will be enough. It is advisable to purchase pigs and wild boars from different suppliers in order to avoid mating and getting weakened offspring. The distribution in the herd of 300-350 goals is as follows: about 150 sows, 10-15 boars, and the remaining individuals go for fattening and sale.
Pig room and equipment
Pigs are considered unpretentious animals, but nevertheless, for their maintenance and successful rearing, it is necessary to provide some conditions. In particular, a clean and dry room will be required, where the air temperature will be maintained at 17-22 ° C. The room should be ventilated, but any drafts should be completely excluded. The height of the ceilings of the pigsty should be at least 2.5 meters. Walls are recommended to be plastered and whitewashed. As a rule, on the floor of the pigsty they make flooring with a slight slope from tightly fitted boards without underground space. Windows in the pigsty should be located at least 1.5 meters above the floor. For ease of ventilation, at least half of the windows are made with opening wings.
If the floor in the pigsty is bricked or poured with concrete, then wooden boards are laid on it. Ideally, a pigsty is best equipped with a system of slit floors, which allows you to maintain cleanliness in sections with maximum convenience and time saving. Such floors have low thermal conductivity. The presence of gaps prevents the accumulation of waste. And such floors will last a long time - at least twenty years. Manufacturers of such floors claim that their use reduces the risk of intestinal and catarrhal diseases (and, consequently, the cost of veterinary drugs), significantly increases the weight gain: on average 50 g per day and on fattening by 80 g per day . In addition, slotted floors can reduce the need for manual labor and energy costs associated with the removal of manure. Thus, water consumption using such floors is reduced by about five times, and electricity - by half.
For insulation, the inner surface of the walls of the den is lined with boards to a height of one meter. Sections are also separated by boards. In each pen there should be a place for feeding animals, as well as a separate place for their livelihoods.
The pigsty area directly depends on the herd population. Novice farmers experienced pig farmers are recommended to start with 50 goals. As the herd grows, it will be possible to think about expanding the area of the already existing pigsty or building a new one. Animals can be kept in groups in sections or separately in machines (cages). Although according to GOSTs, the area of the section for keeping one individual should not be less than 2.5-3 square meters. meters, but experts still recommend laying at least 4 square meters for fattening pigs. meters, and for the sow - 5 square meters. meters. Add the necessary areas for vestibules and walkways, for sections with young animals and areas for walking. Thus, the optimal pigsty area for 50 goals will be about 300 square meters. meters.
Separate corrals are set up for piglets. Usually young animals are kept in pairs, as pigs are herd animals. It is noted that when keeping two pigs each youngster improves appetite and increases weight better. Do not forget to equip a walking patio. Although this requirement is not mandatory, regular walking of pigs can enhance their health and increase their resistance to disease.
At first glance, it seems that building a pigsty is a simple matter. However, when designing it, it is necessary to take into account a large number of factors, which include features of keeping animals of different age groups, livestock, climatic features of your region, the regime of keeping pigs, etc.
For example, with year-round maintenance, a capital building with good wall insulation and a heating system will be required. For successful breeding and raising pigs, you can not save on two points - maintaining optimal conditions and feed. Any violation of the regime will certainly affect the average daily gain. Pigs are really unpretentious animals, but they adapt to adverse environmental conditions due to the consumption of accumulated nutrients, which leads to weight loss.
Many novice pig farmers are wondering what is more profitable - to build a pigsty from scratch or to purchase an empty farm and repair buildings. It all depends on the source data. If you are lucky to find an abandoned farm with good capital pigsties, then their repair will cost much cheaper than building from scratch. However, if the buildings have already been hung up or initially did not meet the requirements, then the savings will be doubtful: you still have to build pigsties anew. Do not forget that already existing premises must be thoroughly disinfected, as well as equipped with various communications. The most necessary is the heating system. The most profitable option - economical devices for direct combustion of liquid fuel or gas. These include, for example, blower heat generators. However, such equipment can not be used for heating queen cells and premises for keeping on growing. In the latter cases, it is recommended to use ribbed pipes for general heating, water pig registers for water heating. For sections with pigs, water mats are used, into which hot water is supplied from the local boiler.
Ideally, of course, it is also worthwhile to put in place a waste management system, but it is not cheap and you can do without it at first. Although such a system can significantly reduce labor costs for cleaning and, in general, investments in it quickly pay off. The perfect pigsty should be warm. Animals should be provided with peace and quiet (loud noises - stress for pigs, which leads to weight loss and poor health). In addition, it is necessary to clean the premises daily and carry out its ventilation.
Necessary equipment for keeping pigsThe equipment you require depends on the method of feeding used. There are two main methods - dry and liquid. The first method has received the greatest distribution because of its availability, since the cost of equipment and its installation in this case is at least 2-3 times lower than the costs of the liquid feeding method. In addition, it is more simple and controlling bodies (for example, SES) impose less requirements on it. For these reasons, 80-85% of all pig farms use the dry method of feeding. Feed in pigsties of a standard form (rectangular, square) is fed to the sections from the hopper through a spiral feed line. If the structure is of non-standard shape, then for automatic distribution it is necessary to use a chain-washer conveyor. It has a much more complex design and, therefore, a higher price. This feeding system is used for all animals, including sows with suckling pigs. However, in case of group keeping of single-pregnant sows, the feeding system is equipped with an individual dosing device.
In addition, drinkers will be required. The standard watering system consists of a water treatment unit with a pressure regulator, a mechanical filter and a mediator, metal or PVC water pipes and drinking bowls of various modifications. Drinkers themselves are of two types - cup and nipple (nipple). They are also made of stainless steel or PVC.
The list of obligatory equipment also includes machine tools, feed loaders for transporting and loading bulk feed, warming lamps for piglets of the first days of life, and various livestock products.
The number of personnel of your pig farm directly depends on the type of equipment used. You will need workers, a veterinarian, a livestock specialist (the functions of a veterinarian and livestock can be performed by one person with the appropriate education and experience), an accountant and a manager. To maintain an automated farm, 2-5 workers will be required (depending on the herd population).
Как мы уже упоминали выше, неполноценный рацион приводит к снижению прироста, удлинению срока откорма и, следовательно, к повышению себестоимости готовой продукции. Качество свинины напрямую зависит от вида используемых кормов. Их подразделяют на три основных группы. К кормам, которые способствуют высокому качеству свинины, относятся пшеница, кормовые бобы, ячмень, рожь, морковь, просо, свекла, горох, комбинированные силос, сочные травяные корма (люцерна, клевер), молочная сыворотка и обрат. А вот кукуруза, картофель и картофельная мезга, гречиха, пшеничные отруби и свекольная патока, напротив, снижают качество мяса. Однако кормить свиней зерновыми культурами и корнеплодами оказывается накладно. Поэтому корма первой группы и корма второй группы в рационе должны идти в соотношении не менее 50 на 50 (оптимально – 60 % кормов первой группы и 40 % кормов второй группы). А вот объем жмыха, овса, сои, пищевых отходов, рыбы и отходов рыбной промышленности лучше сократить минимум до 30 %. В этих продуктах содержится большое количество жиров. Кроме того, они имеют специфический запах, который передается мясу. По этим причинам корма третьей группы исключают из рациона свиней за 1, 5-2 месяца до убоя.
Существует два основных вида откорма – мясной и сальный. Наиболее распространен первый вариант. Такой вид откорма заканчивают, когда масса тела животного достигает 100-120 кг. Дальнейшее кормление по этой схеме оказывается нерентабельным, так как по достижению такого веса мышечная ткань практически не наращивается, увеличивается лишь содержание жира. Откорм начинают с трехмесячного возраста и до 6-8 месяцев. В летнее время до половины рациона должны составлять сочные зеленые корма, что улучшает аппетит у свиней и способствует приросту массы. На сало откармливают молодняк и свиноматок после отъема поросят. При сальном откорме хороший эффект дает картофель, ячмень, кукуруза, корнеплоды.
Составлением рецептур кормления должны заниматься специалисты, так как рацион молодых поросят или, к примеру, свиноматок будет существенно отличаться. Проверяйте качество кормов, покупайте их только у проверенных поставщиков – на заводов или у свиноводов с хорошей репутацией.
Затраты на организацию свинофермы
Расходы на организацию фермы складываются на покупку или аренду земли, строительство свинарников (если в этом есть необходимость), их оборудование, приобретение поголовья молодняка, заработных плат работникам фермы, покупки кормов. Аренда свинофермы обойдется в сумму около 4 млн. рублей. Стоимость оборудования начинается от 2 млн. рублей, в зависимости его вида и комплектации. Для стада в 300-350 голов потребуется примерно 5-7 рабочих. Свинарки получают от 10 тысяч рублей в месяц, а вот технолог или ветеринар – от 20 тысяч рублей. The exact amount varies by region.
Цены на корм зависят от целей откорма. К примеру, отруби обойдутся в сумму от 80 рублей за 20 кг. Молодняк откармливается комбикормом стоимостью от 150 рублей за 15 кг. Для откорма свиней на мяса потребуются смеси стоимостью от 220 рублей за 30 кг, а вот для выращивания свиней на сало расходы на корм составят от 200 рублей за то же объем. Корма – самая большая статья расходов. Их стоимость составляет примерно 70 % в общей смете затрат. Закупать корма лучше впрок – минимум на 3-4 месяца вперед. Впрочем, отопление свинарника также обойдется недешево.
Рентабельность бизнеса по выращиванию свиней составляет около 28 %. Окупить все расходы можно через 3, 5-4 года.Sysoeva Liliya (c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides