In connection with the current world situation, farming has gained some prospects. Opening a business based on this is, of course, suitable mainly for rural residents, but urban residents can invest in the agricultural sector simply by finding a person who is ready to grow plants or animals and paying for his labor; in return, profits will come. And given that only a small number of farmers are involved in some plants, you can enter the market segment where competition is minimal. Garlic can be called such a plant, vegetable growers are not in a hurry to deal with it, there are several reasons for this, the simplest is the expectation of low demand. Indeed, garlic is consumed in much smaller quantities than even onions closely related to it, but its plant is quite in demand and is successfully sold if you know the distribution channels.
Mankind is cultivating the Állium satívum species, which is commonly known as garlic, for eating. He is a close relative of another famous plant - onion. Many people don’t eat these two plants because of their specific taste and smell, but nevertheless, as part of many dishes, garlic and onions are simply obligatory. At the same time, garlic is also often used as a seasoning. In this culture, not only the bulbs themselves are consumed, but even the leaves and peduncles, and many parts of the plant also have an antiseptic effect; Thanks to this, garlic is often used in medicine. Therefore, if you are not limited to searching for buyers in the market, you can sell large volumes of your goods in a fairly short time.
If a businessman is just starting to do his own business, then you need to register the form of a business entity. The form of peasant farming is optimal in this case, although if you register as an individual entrepreneur or legal entity, it is quite possible to conduct your own farm and even pay the same level of taxes as peasant farms (a single agricultural tax is provided for farmers - unified agricultural tax; and for private entrepreneurs and LLC - a simplified taxation system, or simplified tax system; but the rate is the same both there and there). The code for such an activity is relatively accurately stated in the classifiers: (OKPD 2) 08/18/2019 Root crops and tubers, vegetables, onion vegetable crops. It is better to allocate up to 20 thousand rubles for registration in order to solve all bureaucratic issues, in time it can take up to one month. If you wish, you can contact specialized companies that are engaged in the registration of new entrepreneurs, but they will require money, sometimes considerable.
When the legal issue is resolved, you can begin to search for a site for sowing crops. Garlic does not need too much space; if you work on an area of up to one hectare, you can generally remain a simple citizen, not an entrepreneur, because such an economy will fall under the definition of private household plots - personal subsidiary plots. About 5 hectares of land may be sufficient for the industrial cultivation of this crop. The rental price is very different from region to region, and can range from 500 rubles (for the northern regions and bad soil) to 3, 500 rubles (south-western lands with chernozem soil). The average price in central Russia is about 2, 000 rubles per year per hectare. Thus, about five thousand hectares will need to be allocated about 10 thousand rubles annually.
Already at this stage, it is important to determine what form of garlic will be grown: winter garlic loves loamy sand soils, but spring - light loamy soils. The advantages of cultivating both types of garlic. For example, winter garlic is harder to grow (a crop has a better chance of dying because it is waiting for the winter), and it yields a crop by the time the price of garlic in the market is minimal. But at the same time, the yield of such garlic is slightly higher than that of spring. It, in turn, is advantageous in that it is harvested just in time for winter, when the cost of garlic is highest. But it should be noted that with proper storage, garlic bulbs can be stored for a long time, which allows you to delay the sale until the right time.
The next step is to determine how exactly the garlic will be grown. Depending on the variety, this plant can grow from seeds or from cloves. If you plant garlic cloves, then the crop can be obtained within a year, that is, after the vegetative period of the plant. But in this case, the plant will already be old, which means that subsequently the yield will only decrease. And this method leads to the fact that specific pathogenic organisms that harm the garlic accumulate in the soil. This method is suitable if you need to get a garlic crop in one year.
Otherwise, it is better to use seeding. The result will be young plants that are more resistant to external influences, which give a good harvest, and which need much less to plant. This method is chosen if it is planned to cultivate garlic for a long time, and yet it is a perennial plant. However, experienced agronomists note that with this method it is best to grow winter garlic; in the case of spring varieties, cultivation of seeds is practiced. These are germinated seeds, which are a single-tooth bulb. They are planted as well as ordinary teeth, but in this case the plants are more stable. The growth of garlic is the formation in the first year of exactly the seedling, after which a full-fledged plant is formed from it in the second year, the modified stem of which can already be called the bulb. It is these plants that are used in food.
To start making profit from garlic on an industrial scale, therefore, you must initially rely on the fact that garlic is rather a good addition to the economy, but making money only on it is quite difficult. In this regard, this crop is grown in multidisciplinary farms, where it occupies a plot for several years, and though not so actively, but still participates in crop rotation. Good precursors for garlic include siderata crops, legumes, cabbage and some pumpkin, except for cucumber. It is better not to plant garlic after closely related plants, that is, the Amaryllis family (the most common crop is onion), as well as carrots.
They begin to plant garlic at different times depending on the region, but the farther south, the later the sowing begins; and this applies to both spring and winter forms. Garlic prefers organic fertilizer, but you still have to add inorganic. In case of increased acidity of the soil, it must first be subjected to liming. The soil must be moistened, because garlic is a moisture-loving plant. Subsequently, the soil under the garlic should not only be fertilized, but also moderately moistened. The seeds themselves or seeds must be placed at a considerable depth in the soil, otherwise the plants may freeze; this concerns primarily winter garlic. Phosphorus and potassium are introduced into the soil immediately, but nitrogen should be added later, in the spring. The cost of fertilizers on average is about 5 thousand rubles per hectare, that is, 25 thousand rubles will be needed to fertilize the entire field.
Garlic has a fairly large number of pests that can significantly reduce the yield of this plant. At the same time, garlic has both common diseases that are found in all representatives of the onion genus, and is resistant to some of them. Not only the growing plants, but also the harvested stems are affected, this applies to bacterial rot, which is also found in onions. But fusarium is recognized as the most dangerous disease, which in other years can destroy more than half of the total crop. This fungal disease is not only harmful to the culture, but also dangerous to the health of animals and people. Of the insects, garlic was chosen by ticks, which farmers fight almost always with special onion flies. Moreover, the definition of “onion flies” refers to several species of different families, so you need to study all the possible pests in your region in order to more effectively deal with parasites. They destroy insects with the help of pesticides and pesticides, while today there are modern drugs that can effectively combat pests, but do not accumulate and destroy plants.
The most difficult thing is to determine if the garlic is ripe and ready for harvest. In the case of the so-called "shoot" variety, that is, having well-developed inflorescences with seeds, this is easy to determine by the yellowing of the leaves. In this case, the plants are harvested, but not only the bulbs, but also the inflorescences themselves are preserved to obtain the seed stock. It should also be noted that in many types of garlic they eat not only the onions themselves, but also the green parts, as well as the onions, and in some cases the leaves of the plant that fry are nutritious and tasteful. But, of course, the most valuable thing in garlic is onions; at the same time, they can be harvested even somewhat ahead of schedule, because subsequently the modified stem will ripen at the place of storage. It is optimal to store bulbs at a temperature of from -1 to 3 degrees Celsius, at this temperature, the plants will not lose their presentation, if the room was properly processed, then the plants will not rot and experience strong pests. As noted above, garlic can be stored for up to several months, which makes it possible to sell it at the right time. But the most valuable, of course, is a fresh, only collected plant.
To properly care for the plant, you need to purchase the appropriate equipment. In any multidisciplinary farm, perhaps, there is already a universal technique, which can include a tractor with a plow and trailer. Already experienced farmers often have a cultivator and a mini tractor. But for the tractor, it is advisable to purchase a special seeder for garlic, which is configured in such a way as to optimally apply the seeds to the soil. The cost of such a device is about 100 thousand rubles. In addition, for large areas you need a specialized combine for harvesting garlic. The cost of such equipment can reach 3 million rubles, and it makes sense to either rent this equipment or lease such equipment. But such a harvester will have many functions that will allow you to get almost already sorted and selected garlic at the output.
That is, there are certainly advantages to using such equipment, but if it was decided to purchase such expensive equipment, you can think about buying a special garlic processing line. Thanks to this, it will be possible to get an already finished product, which can also be sold much more expensively. To provide manual labor, it is best to contact the nearest village or village, where there are many free hands. People will not require a lot of money in payment of their labor, and for the time of any hard work, you can attract outside power.
Now you need to determine the cost of seed. Agronomists note that the use of seeds or cloves is sometimes very unprofitable, since you have to purchase a large amount of planting material. Rather, the mass of this material will be large. It is more profitable to use seeds that are slightly higher in price than seeds, but much less is required (seeds). So, cloves will need about one and a half tons per hectare, while only 20 kilograms of seeds per square meter will be enough. The yield per hectare is about 15 tons directly of the bulbs themselves. However, some varieties give significantly more yield. The cost of seeds is on average 150 rubles per kilogram, and no more than 15 thousand rubles will be required for sowing. At a cost of a kilogram of cloves of 70 rubles per kilogram, 525 thousand rubles will be required to provide yourself with a future crop. From this it becomes clear that seedlings should be used only if it is planned to get a very good crop from them. If we take into account that 75 tons of the crop were harvested (from five available hectares), then with an average wholesale price of the same 70 rubles per kilogram, you can get 5 million 250 thousand rubles. Thus, the first crop can even fully cover the costs of acquired equipment.
You can actually sell garlic to a large number of enterprises. First of all, you should turn to those organizations that are engaged in processing or food products. As a spice and flavor enhancer, garlic is in demand in many food factories. It is best to immediately start looking for future buyers, which will save time and money after the harvest. Garlic can also be sold to resellers who take a large batch at once and give a significant amount of money for one contract, but they will have a very small price per kilogram. You can engage in wholesale sales with many partners, selling grown products at a price slightly higher, but in smaller batches. You can also join a cooperative, where it is easy to sell grown plants.
But it is most beneficial to engage in retail sales yourself, because in the market the price of one kilogram of garlic in the cold season can reach 200 rubles. But there is a risk of not selling anything at all or selling too little to recoup expenses. And finally, if the products turned out to be very high quality and have a good presentation, then you can do export sales. Russia is in fifth place in the cultivation of garlic, and in the world market the products of this country are interesting to consumers. But it is best to combine different methods of selling cultivated garlic, selling as much as possible large parties to resellers and independently selling garlic in the market; this will reduce the risk of not selling anything and increase profits.Matthias Laudanum (c) www.clogicsecure.com - A portal to small business business plans and guides