Properties and uses of gelatin
Gelatin - a product consisting of a protein with a high content of amino acids, when interacting with water turns into a jelly-like substance.
It is characterized by color, taste and properties of the gel obtained from it. Quality products must be transparent in color and free from foreign odors.
The scope of gelatin is quite wide. In accordance with the purpose, there are also groups:
1. Edible gelatin - used in the confectionery industry for the preparation of creams, jellies, ice creams, fruits in jellies. It is added as a thickener to dairy and canned foods. In winemaking, they are used to brighten hard-to-filter wine materials and to correct coarse wine materials with increased astringency.
2. Technical - used in the textile and cosmetic industries.
3. Photo gelatin - one of the materials for making the film.
4. Medical - used for the manufacture of shells for drugs (capsules) and as a plasma substitute.
5. Printing - in the manufacture of printing inks for money, newspapers, magazines. Serves as a bonding component for photo paper.
At the moment, the amount of gelatin produced in Russia does not satisfy the need for it. Of the required three to four thousand tons, only about a hundred are produced. Basically, the market is filled with goods of imported origin. This fact indicates the likelihood of finding a niche in gelatin production. It also captivates the ability to produce glues and finished glues (casein, coarse and bone glue, rubber-based adhesives), which are made from gelatin. The main disadvantage is the laborious process.
Raw material selection
One of the most important stages in the manufacture of gelatin is the selection and preparation of raw materials. The main requirement is that the raw material must contain collagen, the main constituent substance of gelatin, which gives it such a property as a jelly-like mass when exposed to liquid. Such material is the organs of animals: bone and soft raw materials (tendons, skin trimmings, mezra, veins, etc.). Bone raw materials can be table, sausage and prefabricated. The first type comes from the catering network, they are boiled. The second - from sausage and canning shops in raw form, of which bones with less meat are usually highly valued. The last type of bone can trap dirt and impurities.
The following parts are used: jawbone, frontal part of the skull, pelvic bone, shoulder blades, ribs without vertebrae, head. Bones are stored separately from other raw materials in a ventilated room or under a canopy. Storage on open paved areas is allowed. Bone cannot be stored for a long time, as this reduces its quality, and therefore, the amount of gelatin released from it.
Soft raw materials come in tanneries and meat processing plants. Good raw materials for gelatin are sawdust and sprouting mezdra, heads, calf skins unsuitable for leather production, split leather, pork skin. The lack of a large number of cuts of meat, fat, blood, pollution are mandatory characteristics of soft raw materials. It is stored in barrels, pre-preserved with salt to prevent putrefactive decay.
All raw materials must be accompanied by a certificate of veterinary and sanitary supervision.
The first step in production is the preparation of raw materials. It is sorted manually on a conveyor belt (bones - according to anatomical types, without mixing raw and boiled, soft raw materials - according to the degree of freshness, methods of preservation), separating extraneous impurities. The next process is bone degreasing: a bone is loaded into a special machine and poured with water at a temperature of 90-95 ° C 15-20 cm above the bone. To save water, with one broth, degrease the bone to three grooves. Fat yield is 6% of bone mass. The bone is washed in continuous drums and polished.
Next, the bone enters the crushing machine, where it is crushed. This allows you to increase the surface of the raw material, which contributes to a more complete extraction of fat and glue.
Crushed bone is calibrated in the following groups: from 8 mm to 12 mm, from 12 mm to 20 mm, from 20 mm to 25 mm. Large pieces are regrind. Further, the raw material goes through the process of demineralization: it is loaded into maceration tanks, where the mineral part of the bone is removed using hydrochloric acid (3-7%).
Sorted soft raw materials are washed for 40 minutes at a temperature of 70-80 ° C and crushed on mezdrozek. Salty raw materials are washed in water (4-6 ° C), dry soaked in water and milk of lime, frozen thawed in running water (20 ° C).
The longest process is the degradation of raw materials (removal of all proteins except collagen). The raw materials are placed in ash vats, filled with milk of lime, which is changed within 25-40 days with a decrease in pH from 12-13 to 8-9. To determine the end of the reaction, the raw materials are checked for evaporation (cooking time at a temperature of 50-60) and structure (should be homogeneous, glassy, transparent). The resulting substance is anesthetized (lime, alkaline soluble proteins and their breakdown products, calcium soaps and other contaminants are removed): washed with water for 12-18 hours, neutralized with hydrochloric acid (5-7%) for 4-6 hours, washed again for 3-4 hours (in general, the process takes 24-28 hours).
This is followed by cooking gelatin in several stages (24-36 hours): first at a temperature of 50-56 ° C, then 6-7 times the temperature is increased by 5 degrees. Water consumption: per 1 ton of leather raw materials 0.4-0.6 m3 of water, ossein 0.8-1 m3 of water, tendons 0.2-0.4 m3. The boiled broths are subjected to the following processing: preservation with sulfuric acid, filtration in chamber or dimensional filter presses, through a pulp, evaporation in vacuum evaporation apparatus, and secondary preservation with sulfuric acid.
The next step is gelatinization (gelation). The broth is loaded into a gelatinizer, where it turns into gelatin sheets (tape), which are then dried in tunnel dryers at an initial temperature of 25-30 ° C and a final temperature of 45-50 ° C (food gelatin - 12-15 hours, technical - 20 -25 hours). The dried mass goes through the stages of grinding, sieving and mixing.
The laborious process of producing a batch of gelatin takes about 60 days.
Technical and food gelatin are packed in paper bags, stamped barrels, cardboard-wound drums weighing no more than 20 kg. Retail gelatin is packaged with packages of combined materials weighing 25 and 50 g.
Gelatin is stored separately from substances with pungent odors in dry rooms at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C and humidity not more than 70%.
The costs of starting a business include: the cost of equipment and raw materials, rent and utility bills, salaries and other expenses.
The production line includes the following equipment:
- belt conveyor (about 200 thousand rubles);
- continuous drums (130 thousand rubles);
- crushing machine (120 thousand rubles);
- capacities (100-200 thousand rubles)
- apparatus for the extraction (cooking) of gelatin;
- apparatus for degreasing bones;
- filter presses (from 150 thousand rubles);
- vacuum evaporation apparatus (250 thousand rubles);
- drying machine (60-500 thousand rubles);
- line for packaging and packaging (from 250 thousand to 2 million rubles)
- devices for quality control and radiation purity of raw materials and finished products.
With a continuous three-shift work schedule, the line produces up to 2000 tons of products per year. To service this production will require up to 120 people. You can reduce the number of employees by reducing the volume of product output.
- bones: chicken - 2-20 rubles / kg, beef - 10 rubles / kg;
- pork skin - 20 rubles / kg;
- mezdra - 7, 5 rubles / kg;
- milk of lime - 1000 rub / cub. m .;
- hydrochloric acid - 42 rubles / l.
The yield of gelatin from the bone is about 10%, respectively, per 1 ton of gelatin will leave 10 tons of bone raw materials. Raw materials costs for 160 tons of gelatin will amount to about 20 million rubles.
Total costs will be about 29 million rubles.
The wholesale cost of a kilogram of gelatin is 175-240 rubles. With the release of 160 tons of gelatin in two months (gelatin production cycle), the income will be approximately 28 million rubles.
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