In Russia, beets are grown in the south, west, in the middle lane, in the Urals. Sown areas occupy about 10 percent of all sown area of open ground crops. The main advantages of this culture, experts consider unpretentiousness, high productivity, good preservation in the winter. Beetroot does not depend much on weather conditions and watering; its germination is not as long as that of other root crops. The market for beets is large enough to grow this crop is considered a promising business, but it should also be noted that the vegetable market is often difficult to predict. Many conditions affect profit making: weather, disease, pests, seed germination, level of mechanization, storage, logistics, level of competition. It is almost impossible to foresee everything and reduce risk factors. In certain years, the profitability of growing beetroot can reach up to 300 percent; in other years, the crop is almost impossible to sell. On average, the profitability of growing this crop is about 40 percent, it is this figure that is reasonable to use in the calculations.
The main difficulty that can be encountered when growing beets is the high probability of mass destruction of this plant by pests, especially beetroot flea, which can lead to loss of crop.
Although beets can grow on virtually any soil, the best soils for growing this plant are humus clay soils with a good structure. Acidic heavy soils with close occurrence of groundwater are undesirable.
The optimal precursors for beets are potatoes, legumes, cucumber, crops, peppers, eggplant and tomato. Do not plant beets after cabbage, sugar and fodder beets, canola. The return of beets to their former place is possible in three to four years. Beets make good use of the aftereffect of organic fertilizers, so it is appropriate to plant it with a second or third crop after they are applied. It is allowed to grow beets in the same area with onions and carrots.
Before sowing beets, a deep tillage is necessary. After harvesting in the fall, the remains of the plants are crushed, the area is peeled by disk cultivators in order to provoke the germination of weeds. After 20 days, plowing is done to destroy the germinated weeds. The soil is loosened by 25-30 centimeters. In the spring, harrowing the soil. Before sowing, soil cultivation is performed. The fertilizer application rate is as follows: 200 kg N / ha (in parts); 75 kg P205 / ha; 250 kg K20 / ha (beets are not sensitive to chlorine); 100 kg of kizerite / ha.
The cost of plowing one hectare of land is 1000-1500 rubles. Soil cultivation by disk cultivators or disk harrows will cost 1, 500-2, 000 rubles. The cost of a new disk cultivator starts from 500 thousand rubles.
Varieties of beetroot are divided by area of cultivation and maturity. Early ripening varieties have a growing season of 50-80 days and reduced taste. Mid-season varieties differ in the vegetation period of 80-100 days, and the vegetation period of the late varieties lasts more than 100 days. Taste qualities of late varieties are much higher than in early varieties, and the shelf life is longer.
Beets are also divided in shape (can be elongated, flattened and spherical) and in color. The best is considered to be dark red and red-purple beets without light rings.
Bordeaux is one of the best traditional beetroot varieties. Belongs to mid-ripening varieties, has a pulp of intense dark red color, heat-resistant, suitable for cultivation in the southern regions. The period from the appearance of the first seedlings to technical ripeness is 62-116 days. It can be stored for a long time without loss of presentation and taste.
"Bikores" is a high-yielding variety with round root crops. The period from germination to ripeness is 125 days. The variety tolerates drought and is resistant to flowering.
"Bolivar" is a mid-season variety of Dutch selection, has a round root crop with pulp of dark red color.
Cornell is a drought tolerant, high-yielding variety. Has a rounded root crop with pulp of dark red color. It is stored for a long time. The vegetative period is 118 days.
"Russian single-seeded" is an early ripe variety with round-shaped root crops and juicy burgundy pulp. It is recommended for use in the autumn-winter period. It is well stored, resistant to tsvetochnosti.
"Boltardi" is an early ripe variety of Dutch selection that grows well in the Central region of Russia. Designed for long-term storage. It has a round root and dark red flesh. Resistant to flowering.
“Egyptian flat” is a high-yielding variety intended for autumn-winter consumption. Has a flat root vegetable and pink-red flesh. The growing season is 110-125 days.
“Red ball improved” is an early ripening high-yielding beet variety. The pulp is juicy, dark in color. This variety is resistant to cold. It is stored well, it is not exposed to flaccidity.
“Mulatto” is a mid-season variety with a round root crop with flesh of dark red color. It is stored for a long time.
“Opołski” is a mid-season variety of Polish selection. It grows well in the Central and Central Black Earth regions. It is stored for a long time. Has a large rounded root crop with juicy dark red pulp. Taste is very good. The variety is resistant to phomosis. Productivity is up to 50 tons per hectare.
For cultivation in temperate latitudes, the following beet varieties are recommended.
"Detroit" is an early ripe variety, the period from emergence to technical ripeness is 80-100 days. It has beautiful round root crops and flesh of dark red color.
“Crimson ball” is a mid-season variety with excellent yield. The shape of the root crop is spherical, the flesh is dark red.
"Cold-resistant-19" is a mid-season high-yield variety, popular due to its good taste. The pulp is dark red. The variety is suitable for planting in the winter.
Bordeaux-237 is a mid-season high-yield variety with large root crops with dark red pulp. Great for long winter storage.
“Podzimnaya A-474” - a beet variety specially developed for planting in winter, allows you to get an early harvest in late spring or early summer. It has oval-shaped root crops and red-burgundy pulp.
"One-sprout" is a late-ripening high-yield variety with excellent taste. The pulp is maroon, the shape of root crops is round.
“Cylinder” is a mid-season high-yield variety with cylindrical root crops of maroon color. Beets of this variety "Cylinder" does not grow deep into the soil, but above the surface.
Seeds for industrial cultivation are sold in packages of 50 and 100 thousand pieces. The cost of packaging in 50 thousand seeds is 1, 500 rubles, in 100 thousand seeds - 2, 800 rubles. It is better to purchase treated seeds, as they germinate faster and are less susceptible to disease and parasite damage.
The seeding rate of sugar beet seeds is 8-10 kilograms per hectare for single seedlings and 12-15 kilograms for multi-seedlings. Seeds can be sown in a wide-row way (row spacing 45-60 centimeters) or tape (20x50 centimeter pattern). The density of beets - 350-400 thousand plants per hectare.
It is advisable to sow in two terms. The first sowing - immediately after sowing the early grains, and the second sowing - in May. The crop of the first sowing is harvested for summer use, the crop of the second sowing is for winter storage, since May sowing helps prevent the bloom of the roots. To obtain super early beets in early June, use winter beet varieties, and sowing is done by the end of November or early December.
It is possible to increase labor productivity during sowing with the help of pneumatic precision seeders. This guarantees high speed and accuracy: getting the desired depth of seed placement and plant density. The cost of a seeder is from 350 thousand rubles. In the secondary market, you can buy equipment for 200 thousand rubles.
Before emergence, the soil is cultivated with a net harrow. This is done to combat weeds, but it does not completely solve the problem of weeds, therefore it is advisable to use betanal or hexyluric herbicides.
Mass shoots of beetroot appear on 8-12 days after sowing. If sowing of multi-sprouted seeds was carried out, then in the phase of the first true leaves, rarefaction of crops is carried out. The distance between plants should be 3-4 centimeters. Depression is made manually. Payment for employee services is 300-600 rubles per day.
Several times during the summer, you can irrigate beets. Irrigation rate is 120-150 cubic meters per hectare. This allows you to significantly increase the yield of the product. A month before harvesting, watering must be stopped.
Beets need to be cleaned before the first frost, because its root crops protrude above the ground and are easily damaged by frost. The standard size of the root for harvesting should be 10-14 centimeters in diameter.
During beet harvesting, beet lifters and beet harvesters are used. The cost of a beet harvester in the secondary market starts from 500 thousand rubles. New equipment costs more than 2 million rubles. Beet loader can be purchased for 1.5 million rubles.
On average, the cultivation of one hectare of beets costs 30-40 thousand rubles. The cost of the product is affected by the availability of agricultural machinery, labor costs in the growing region, and weather conditions.
The yield of beets without irrigation is 20-25 t / ha, and with regular watering and fertilizing, it can reach up to 50 t / ha. The cost of a kilogram of beetroot varies from 1.5 to 2.5 rubles per kilogram, the price depends on how productive the year was.
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