It would be more accurate to call this crop leguminous vegetables. The fact is that the nutritional value of mature bean seeds is slightly less than the value of cereal seeds. The cultivation of legumes, among which the most common in our country beans, soybeans, peas, lentils and peanuts, is engaged in many agriculture.
The popularity of these cultures is due to several factors. Firstly, this is a huge variety of species of the legume family. Secondly, legumes are simply a storehouse of vitamins, minerals and vegetable protein. Bean plants are almost as good as meat in protein content. At the same time, according to nutritionists and vegetarians, the protein that is found in crops such as soybeans, peas or beans is absorbed by the human body much easier than the protein found in meat. Even using conventional cooking methods (cooking, frying, stewing), the digestibility of bean protein reaches 80%, which is a very high rate. At the same time, leguminous vegetables contain a minimum amount of fat, which makes them indispensable products in diet and vegetarian nutrition. However, legumes are valuable not only in proteins, but also in a unique set of organic acids, vitamins, fats and mineral salts. Legumes are also used in medical practice. They are rich in folic acid and potassium, contain B vitamins and manganese, a large amount of fiber and dietary fiber. As nutritionists say, after a month of daily consumption of 100-150 g of beans in the blood, a marked decrease in cholesterol levels is noted. The minimum norm of consumption of legumes, according to the Institute of Nutrition AMS, is about 15-20 kg per person per year!
But that is not all. We continue our list of the advantages of legumes over other plants. This time from an “agronomic” point of view. Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen. However, they are not very demanding either on the composition of the soil, nor on the frequency of irrigation, nor on maintenance; they withstand frosts down to –4 ° C. They are very resistant to diseases, easily treatable, and the appearance of pests can be prevented without large investments in special drugs and processing.
The specifics of growing legumes
However, although there are really a lot of varieties of legumes, they all have their own characteristics, which must be taken into account when choosing the plants that you will grow. The main difference lies, first of all, in the timing of planting. You need to choose crops based on not only the demand for them and your personal preferences, but also the optimal conditions for their cultivation. So there are species that are distinguished by good resistance to cold and precocity. They germinate already at a temperature of 3-5 ° C and are relatively undemanding to the temperature regime. The timing of their vegetation is from 65 days. These legumes can be grown in any climatic zone, since during a short vegetative period they manage to produce crops in a short time - before the onset of cooling (in the northern regions).
There are also separate leguminous crops that are heat-loving and do not tolerate sudden temperature changes. Among them there are early-ripening species (for example, certain types of beans), which can be grown in the middle zone of Russia. However, in this case, the seeds are planted later than usual - not earlier than the middle, or even the end of May, when there will be no frosts. However, you can also use the seedling method, and then you can plant legumes a couple of weeks earlier.
There are also such types of legumes, which, unfortunately, are not suitable for cultivation in regions with a cool climate. These include, for example, chickpeas, mung beans and a number of others. But you also need to consider that most plants of this species love moisture (beans, peas, mung bean, soybeans). Although there are other, more drought-tolerant representatives of the legume family (beans, chickpeas).
If you plan to grow legumes on a large scale, then you need to consider the soil requirements. Ideally, it should be heavy clay. True, you can’t do without good fertilizer anyway (the “classic” manure is most often used). Lighter soils are also suitable, but in this case, the main requirement is increased humidity. Legumes do not grow very well on acidic soils. It is best to use neutral soil with a pH level of not more than 7. If you plan to use peat-bog soils for sowing, you must first make copper-containing fertilizers in the soil, otherwise the plants will “go” to the stem, but there will be few seeds. For bean, it is best to set aside fields where beets, turnips and cabbage were previously grown. In this case, after leguminous vegetables, you can plant the field with any vegetable crops, especially tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes and cucumbers. But 3-4 years should pass between bean crops.
The soil for sowing legumes is dug up in the fall and not less than 25 cm in depth. In the spring before planting, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil. As we mentioned above, this is mainly manure, to which double superphosphate, lime and potassium chloride are added. Per square meter of soil, 0.5-1 bucket of manure, 30-50 g of superphosphate, 300 g of lime and 10-20 g of potassium chloride are required. Phosphorite flour (60 g per 1 sq. Meter) is also widely used in the cultivation of legumes. About 20 kg of phosphate rock is consumed per ton of manure during composting. Instead of manure, 4-5 kg of humus or compost can be used. Immediately before sowing, 15 g of urea is added to the loosened soil.
Bean seed planting
Legume seeds are resistant to low temperatures. Unlike many other plants, they germinate at temperatures from + 6 ° C. However, it should be borne in mind that sprouts in beans appear rather quickly - within one and a half weeks after sowing, and if there are frosts at this time, then the plants may die. For this reason, it is recommended that you adhere to optimal planting dates. In the southern regions this may be the second half of April, but in the central regions - not earlier than the second half of May (best of all - on the twentieth of May).
Before planting, seeds are inspected and removed damaged by pests and diseases. The shelf life of seeds is quite large - 10-12 years, but it is better, of course, to use seeds with a not so long shelf life. Sometimes the seeds are warmed up before sowing for three hours at a temperature of + 40 ° C or in hot water at a temperature of + 50 ° C for five minutes, followed by rapid cooling in cold water. Before heating, the seeds are soaked for 4-5 hours in water at room temperature. It is extremely important not to overexpose the seeds in water to avoid rotting. These simple manipulations can significantly increase their germination. Before planting, the seeds are also lowered for five minutes in a warm solution of 2 g of molybdenum ammonium and 2 g of boric acid, diluted in 10 liters of water with a temperature of + 40 ° C, which helps to prevent damage to plants by nodule weevil. In addition, seed treatment is often carried out with bacterial fertilizer (nitrogin or rhizotrophin in a proportion of 1 g per 1 kg of seeds).
Legumes are sown earlier than other crops (starting in mid-April, depending on the region). Although still the best time for sowing is considered mid-May, when the soil is quite moist and the seeds germinate quickly. They are sown in an ordinary way with a distance between rows of 50-60 cm. In each row, the distance between seeds is 12-15 cm. Planting density is 20-30 germinating seeds per square meter with a depth of 6-8 cm. Beans in order to save space can be sown in rows of potatoes or cucumbers. This not only increases profitability, but also favorably affects the productivity of both crops. With good warm weather, the first seedlings can be expected by the middle or end of the second week after sowing. If the air temperature is quite low, and there is too much rain, then the period from sowing to seedlings may be slightly longer.
When choosing a sowing method, the variety of bean culture is taken into account. So, for example, bean varieties are both curly and bush. For plants of the first grade supporting trellises up to two meters high are required. In principle, large expenses for creating trellises are not required - stakes are dug on two sides of the row, onto which they then pull a wire or rope at a distance of 15 cm from each other or a nylon mesh. Seeds are sown on both sides of the trellis. However, with large sown areas, it is more advisable to give preference to bush varieties of legumes that do not require additional supports.
When choosing varieties, take into account the fact that beans are prone to over-pollination. At the same time, they begin to bloom from the lower nodes. The sooner the grade is, the lower the knot. And the lower nodes bring more flowers than those located above. For this reason, if you grow legumes of different varieties on the same site, then the area of the latter should be large enough to allow spatial isolation between cultures of different varieties. If the area of the site is limited, then it is advisable to plant it with leguminous crops of the same variety.
Before seedlings appear, it is recommended to loosen the soil, and then do inter-row cultivation to a depth of 8-12 cm. The main guarantee of a good legume crop is loose soil and the absence of weeds on the field. After the shoots have grown a little, the plants are spudded until they reach a height of 50-60 cm to strengthen the root system and increase the resistance of plants to winds.
Although, in general, legumes are not as demanding on excess moisture as many plants, but still, during flowering and fruiting, they need good watering. At the same time, it is recommended to feed them with mineral fertilizers. Legumes are sensitive to air drought. This means that in arid areas they do not survive, fading in the sun and dry air before they give seeds. In regions with short daylight hours, beans bloom and bear fruit much worse than in areas with long daylight hours.
The timing of harvesting various types of beans depends on several factors. The most important of them are the duration of the growing season and the ripeness phase, in which the fruits of a particular plant species are used.
If green pods (asparagus species of beans, sugar varieties of peas, snake beans, etc.) are used for food, the harvest is produced in several terms as the beans grow, while untimely harvesting not only affects the quality of the product, but also reduces the overall productivity. If ripe grain is used as food, it is harvested once after the fruits have fully ripened.
For example, the period of technical maturity of early types of beans begins in 44-47 days, and mid-ripening varieties - in 50-55 days after the appearance of the first seedlings. By this time, the beans become long, up to 10-15 cm in length, and their grain reaches the size of a wheat grain. Harvesting is carried out at the same time selectively for two to three weeks.
In any case, the beans are removed when the seeds in them are almost fully developed, but not yet sufficiently coarsened. If the fruits are intended to be consumed whole (that is, grains with their shells), then they are harvested when the pods are still juicy and the grains have already reached the optimum size (usually about 1 cm). If raw grains are grown, then the beans are harvested when the seeds are still in milk ripeness, but have already reached their maximum size. First of all, beans are located at the bottom of the stem. They are torn off, released from the cusps and packaged in bags for subsequent packaging or sale by weight. This work is done manually. Most often, the crop is harvested in three to four doses with intervals between harvests of 1-1.5 weeks.
Beans are harvested with tops. Sheaves are knitted from it, and then left for ripening. Threshing is subsequently also done manually. From one plant, an average of 40 g of seeds can be collected. Tops are an excellent feed for cattle and other animals.
After harvesting, the aerial part of the plants is cut, and the roots are buried in the ground during further processing of the site. The fact is that nodules on the roots of beans contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, as a result of the vital activity of which nitrogen accumulates in the soil during the growing season of plants. Bean roots are also used to make compost.
Equipment and business development prospects
Let us consider in more detail what an entrepreneur will need to organize his own farm. To process a small area of 30 acres (private farming) you will need a mini-tractor (or walk-behind tractor), a plow for it, an okuchnik for a mini-tractor, a body for transporting goods using a mini-tractor. This equipment will cost about 80-100 thousand rubles.
Is it worth saving on equipment? You can buy long-obsolete equipment from the Soviet era, but the savings in this case will be doubtful. Old equipment is constantly failing. In addition, its use leads to loss and damage to the crop. New Russian-made equipment is cheaper than imported, while not inferior to the latter in quality and performance. Therefore, it is better to purchase it, rather than used and obsolete equipment.
Additional costs are associated with harvesting, cleaning it from husks and contaminants, sorting, packaging and transportation. Recall that the collection of legumes is carried out manually, which reduces the profitability of the entire production, unless, of course, you plan to hire workers, and not to harvest on your own.
In the future, it is advisable to expand your farm by renting or acquiring new land for sowing, because, as mentioned above, it will be possible to re-sow legumes on your site only 3-4 years after the previous harvest.
Legal and accounting issues of agricultural business
In the event that the land where you plan to grow legumes for personal needs or for sale in small volumes is in your property and belongs to the category of private household plots (personal subsidiary farming), you can not register as an entrepreneur and just sell your products (or rather its surplus) in the retail market. However, you should not count on big profits in this case. If you want to have not just extra income, but a profitable business, you will have to register as an individual entrepreneur. When registering, you will need to select the OKVED code. In our case, the encoding is suitable for 08/18/2019. Growing of cereals and legumes
This group includes the cultivation of durum and soft wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, rice and other crops; the cultivation and drying of legumes (peas, beans, beans); growing seeds, including elite and reproductive seeds intended for sale. Please note (if you intend to expand your farm in the future), this group does not include the cultivation of sugar corn (see 08/18/2019).
Which tax system should I prefer? A single agricultural tax (SAR), which is 6% of net profit, is one of the most profitable. As the name implies, only agricultural producers, that is, enterprises or individual entrepreneurs who themselves produce these products and are engaged in their sale, can pay the URN. If you already have an existing enterprise and you want to switch to the Unified Social-Economic Plan, then the amount of income from the sale of agricultural products should be at least 70% of your total income. There are two taxation regimes for agricultural producers - general and special. There are certain differences between them. Enterprises that pay taxes according to the general taxation regime must pay VAT, a single social tax, property tax (for property used for the production and storage of finished agricultural products, a concession is provided), transport tax (for trucks and agricultural machinery there are also concessions ), transport tax (for trucks and agricultural machinery a privilege is provided), income tax (preferential tax rate on profit from the sale of agricultural products and), land tax, mineral extraction tax, the tax for the use of water and pollution.
Индивидуальные предприниматели, которые переходят на единый сельхозналог, освобождаются от уплаты НДФЛ, НДС (кроме импорта), налога на имущества, а предприятия и организации, выбравшие эту систему налогообложения, - от уплаты НДС (за исключением импорта), налога на имущество и налога на прибыль. Все остальные сборы выплачиваются, как и при других системах налогообложения, но выгода для сельскохозяйственных предприятий налицо.
Перейти на ЕСХН, если вы являетесь сельхозпроизводителем и подпадаете под вышеозначенные требования, можно как в общем порядке, подав соответствующее заявление в ФНС в период с 20 октября по 31 декабря текущего года, так и индивидуально – в течение тридцати дней после регистрации в качестве индивидуального предпринимателями или юридического лица. В первом случае на ЕСХН ваше предприятие перейдет с нового календарного года, а во втором – при постановке на учет в ФСН. Имейте в виду, что в течение года вы не сможете отказаться от выбранной вами системы налогообложения. Но есть возможность и принудительной отмены ЕСХН в том случае, если ваше предприятие начинает вести деятельность, не имеющую отношение к сельскому хозяйству, или доля реализации сельхозпродукции становится менее 70 %.
Стоит также учитывать тот факт, что расходы ИП или предприятия, которое ведет сельскохозяйственную деятельность, ограничиваются тратами на приобретение основных средств производства, заработную плату работников и рекламу с обязательным ведением книги учета доходов и расходов. Доходами считаются лишь те средства, которые поступают на ваш расчетный счет или в кассу предприятия.
Реализация урожая бобовых
Мало вырастить и собрать урожай овощей. Нужно еще и продать их. Каналы сбыта бобовых зависят от нескольких факторов: от масштабов вашего производства и культур, которые вы выращиваете на своем участке.
Если вы работаете как ЛПХ (а мы будем рассматривать именно такой формат в рамках малого бизнеса), то реализовывать излишки своего приусадебного хозяйства можно как самостоятельно (на рынках), так и через посредников. Для работы с оптовиками объемы у вас, скорее всего, будут недостаточно большими, и они не смогут предложить вам выгодные цены на вашу продукцию. Хотя одно из наиболее выгодных направлений работы сейчас – это реализация бобовых под заморозку. Ранее в этом сегменте преобладала продукция зарубежного производства (преимущественно Польша). Теперь же после введения санкций со стороны стран ЕС количество импортной продукции значительно снизилось. При этом отечественные производители пока только начинают осваивать освободившуюся нишу, которая, можно сказать, на сегодняшний день практически пустует.
Но в любом случае, какой бы вариант сбыта вы ни выбрали, для реализации овощей, выращенных в личных подсобных и крестьянских (фермерских) хозяйствах потребуется ряд документов. В частности, обязательно наличие справки на ваш земельный участок (находится ли он в собственности или в аренде). Затем нужно получить необходимые документы для реализации овощей в розницу (Федеральный Закон «О качестве и безопасности пищевых продуктов» от 18.08.2019 №29- ФЗ). Несколько документов вы должны получить в том районе, где находится ваш участок, – это Акт государственного карантинного фитосанитарного надзора и Свидетельство карантинной экспертизы («Правила организации работы по выдаче ветеринарных сопроводительных документов», зарегистрированы Минюстом России 18.08.2019 №8524). Ряд документов оформляются непосредственно на сельскохозяйственном рынке, имеющем Государственную лабораторию ветеринарно-санитарной экспертиз (ГЛВСЭ): разрешение на торговлю (Федеральный Закон «О розничных рынках и о внесении изменений в Трудовой Кодекс Российской Федерации» от 18.08.2019 №271-ФЗ ст.12 п.4) и результат проведения лабораторной экспертизы на продажу овощей (ст.21 Закона Российской Федерации «О ветеринарии» от18.08.2019 №4979).
(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides