Radish is known not only as a tasty, but also as a very useful plant, since it contains a lot of fiber, various enzymes, fats and vitamins C, B1, B2, PP. The protein in the radish is two times more than zucchini, and the calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus and mustard oils contained in the radish are necessary for the human body.
The short vegetative period of radish and the cold resistance of the plant allow you to get an early spring crop and deliver healthy vegetables to the tables of consumers who need vitamins after wintering. Productivity and unpretentiousness make growing radish a good business. In addition, in greenhouse conditions, radishes can be grown all year round and once a month get a crop.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are suitable for year-round cultivation of radishes. A greenhouse with an area of 24 square meters without taking into account the cost of installation will cost 20 thousand rubles. A film greenhouse will cost about half the price. Growing radishes in film greenhouses is most advantageous before planting the main crop, since radishes ripen before the time is right to plant cucumbers or tomatoes. The greenhouse must have a ventilation system so that excessive humidity is not created after irrigation, and heating to maintain the desired temperature in the cold season.
In polycarbonate greenhouses, a cassette method for growing radishes is usually used. It is necessary to pay attention that the material from which the cartridge is made does not react with the solutions used in the cultivation of radishes, does not emit harmful substances. The preferred size of the cartridges is 40 by 40 with the number of cells 64 (5x5x5) or 35 by 36 with the number of cells 49 (5x5x5). One cassette for seedlings costs 50-70 rubles.
Heating in greenhouses is gas and electric. Electric heating is easy to install, but due to the high cost of electricity, the cost of radishes can increase significantly. To heat greenhouses using electricity, electric infrared emitters, convection electric heaters, electric heat guns, as well as thermal mats and thermal films are used. Propane heating is an alternative to electric heating, but such a system is suitable only for small greenhouses, and the cost of equipment and propane often makes the farmer give preference to electric heating. Installation of a heating system for a greenhouse with an area of 20 square meters will cost 4-8 thousand rubles. Solid fuel boilers can also be used. Fuel consumption for daily heating of an area of 100 square meters is about 30 kilograms of firewood. The cost of the boiler is from 80 thousand rubles.
The quality of the substrate has a great influence on the formation of radish root crops. The soil should be loose, well-drained and fertile. For cultivation in sheltered soil, seedlings for main crops can be used. Cassettes are filled manually; the weight of the cassettes should be approximately the same. With the cassette method of growing watering is carried out by the method of flooding.
The soil for planting radishes in a film greenhouse must be prepared - this will allow you to get the maximum yield. When planting in film greenhouses without heating, preparation takes place in the fall. For digging, mineral fertilizers are applied per 40 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potassium chloride per square meter. Superphosphate costs 40-50 rubles per kilogram.
A temperature of 2-3 degrees is sufficient for seed germination. Seedlings are able to endure cooling to 4 degrees of frost. To increase the yield of radishes, it is recommended to plant according to the dot pattern 3 by 3 or 4 by 4 centimeters. The seeding rate of radishes is 8-10 grams of seeds per square meter of planting. Radishes are sown in a narrow-row way with aisles of 15 centimeters wide.
Varieties of radishes for cultivation in open and protected ground vary, although some varieties are universal. Varieties must be distinguished by an early ripening period, be shade-tolerant, prone, resistant to shooting and not have bitterness.
- Deka is an early ripening variety that grows well in greenhouses. Its root crops ripen in 20-30 days. When grown in a film greenhouse, it can yield up to 3.8 kilograms per square meter. The mass of root crops is 11-13 grams. The taste is pleasant, not too spicy. May produce a good crop in low light.
- "Heat" is a radish for greenhouse cultivation; it does not tolerate high temperatures, despite the name. The pulp is tender, slightly sharp. Productivity is high.
- "Alba" is a mid-season high-yielding variety. The taste is slightly sharp. The variety is resistant to flowering and sagging fruits.
- "Basis" is an early-ripening variety of slightly sharp taste, resistant to flowering.
- Warta is an early-ripening variety for growing in a film greenhouse. Resistant to sagging and shooting.
- “Vera” is a mid-season variety resistant to fruit stalking and cracking. The taste is pleasant, slightly sharp.
- "Virovsky white" is a mid-season variety, the fruits are of a slightly peppery taste, they retain their taste advantages for a very long time during gradual harvesting.
- "Eighteen days" - as the name implies, an early variety. By the speed of ripening, it has no equal. Actually reaches ripeness in 23-25 days after shoot. Resistant to shooting. The fruits are mild in taste.
- Würzburg 59 is a mid-season variety resistant to sagging. It can be grown both in open ground and in a film greenhouse.
- "Ilka" is an early ripening variety. The fruits have a semi-sharp taste. Resistant to shooting and sagging, not damaged by pests.
- Quarta is an early ripening variety intended for cultivation in a greenhouse. It gives a good harvest even in low light and low temperature, however, the growing season under such conditions increases. The variety is resistant to shooting.
- "Krakowka" is an early ripe variety intended for cultivation in a film greenhouse. The flesh is weakly sharp, tender.
- "Corundum" is an early ripe variety. Gives a good harvest when grown in a film greenhouse. The taste of the fruits is slightly sharp. Resistant to darting and sagging root crops.
- “Ice icicle” is a mid-season variety that can be grown both in a greenhouse and in open ground. The pulp has a medium sharp taste. Root crops elongated, up to 12 centimeters long, white.
- "Lydia" is a mid-early variety. Resistant to shooting. The pulp has a mild taste.
- "Mark" is an early ripening variety intended for cultivation in protected ground. Root crops are large, the flesh is tender.
- "Lightning F1" - an early hybrid, characterized by high productivity. Resistant to sagging.
- "Mlkhovsky" is a mid- season variety adapted to low-light conditions. Resistant to shooting. Root crops can remain in the ground for up to a month, maintaining quality.
- "Rex F1" is an early ripe hybrid designed for early spring planting in greenhouses. Resistant to shooting.
- Rova is an early ripening variety that is best grown in early spring in greenhouses. Resistant to sagging and shooting.
- Sibirsky 1 is a mid-season variety intended for cultivation in sheltered ground. Resistant to sagging and shooting.
- "Greenhouse" - an early ripe grade for spring greenhouses.
- “Greenhouse mushroom” is another variety exclusively for indoor cultivation.
- “Togul” is an early-growing greenhouse variety with large fruits and juicy pulp.
- "French breakfast" - an early ripe variety with small fruits that are resistant to sagging and coarsening.
- "Helro" is an early ripe variety bred in Holland. It is used for growing in a greenhouse. The fruits are resistant to sagging.
Radish seeds can be bought at a price of 600 to 1200 rubles per kilogram. The cost depends on the variety, purchase volume and seed quality. Usually, seeds are sold processed, but if unprocessed seeds were bought, they must be etched with fentyuram. Also, the seeds should be calibrated so that the seedlings are friendly.
The temperature for the germination of radishes should be 18-20 degrees, in the future it can be reduced to 8 degrees, then when ripening it should be 16 degrees in sunny weather, in cloudy weather - 12. The optimal night temperature is 8-10 degrees. Radish is a light-loving plant, it needs a long daylight hours, although, as we have already noted above, some varieties tolerate poor lighting conditions well, but even they bear fruit much better in light. The minimum illumination is 1300-1500 lux, but under such a light the growing season is 35-45 days. It is advisable to provide illumination above 1500 lux. It is noted that the illumination of 9 thousand lux sharply reduces the growing season. Experts note that if the duration of daylight hours is 12 hours, then you can save the fruits in the phase of technical ripeness for a sufficiently long period. The duration of light for longer than 18 hours leads to rifling and deterioration of the shape of the root crop. Watering is done once every two to three days. Periodically, when watering fertilizers are applied.
On 100 square meters of land you can grow an average of 11-13 thousand plants. The cost of radishes in the market depends on the season. The lowest price for radishes at the end of spring, when farmers who grow radishes in film greenhouses without heating harvest their crops. In hot summer, radish is rarely found on the market, since this plant does not tolerate heat and can be affected by various diseases, but there is little demand for it, since there are many other vegetables. Since October, the demand for radishes has been increasing and is maintained throughout the winter, spring and early summer. On average, the profit from the wholesale sale of radishes grown on one hundred square meters of land is 8-10 thousand rubles.
The most profitable is the conveyor cultivation of radishes using hydroponic shelving units. Subject to growing technology, crops can be harvested almost daily throughout the year.