Minimum starting capital300%
Profitability3 800 000 ₽
Profit for the year3 years
Growing flowers in greenhouses is a profitable and profitable business, which, however, requires considerable investment. Thanks to the advent of new technologies, such very whimsical flowers as roses can be grown in sheltered ground in almost any region of our country.If you want your rose sales business to be successful, you need to start by writing a detailed business plan. It seems that the algorithm for constructing it is extremely simple. All you need is a greenhouse with the ability to control the temperature and level of illumination, fertile soil, fertilizers, special preparations for treating plants from insect pests, roses themselves and the availability of free time to care for flowers. In fact, there are many nuances in this matter, ignorance of which can lead to significant material losses.
Greenhouses on a personal plot
The types of greenhouses that you will use to grow roses directly depend on the start-up capital that you have, and, accordingly, on the scale of your flower business. If you plan to organize such a business with minimal investment, then it is quite possible to do with ordinary greenhouses on your own plot of land.
First of all, before building greenhouse constructions, you will need to receive a document confirming the fact that it is you who are the owner of a personal household (LPH). This document is issued by local authorities, which include, for example, the administration of a rural settlement or a garden partnership (depending on where your land or rented land is located). Unlike peasant farming or private entrepreneurs, private household plots do not have legal status.
However, this form has a number of obvious advantages, which include the absence of the need to pay taxes and the lack of reporting. The disadvantages include limited options for the sale of finished products. So, for example, you cannot sell your flowers through wholesale companies, markets, flower shops, etc. The only option is to sell roses to dealers who do not pay very much. On the other hand, when the business goes uphill, you will be able to register as an individual entrepreneur and sell your products at your own outlet.
Today there are a large number of different options for greenhouse designs for growing flowers. Each of them has its pros and cons. As part of this article, we will consider the most popular greenhouses among gardeners made of polycarbonate. Wood is less and less often used as a material for the frame because of its high cost, high weight and fragility, and more and more often specialists prefer frames made of steel profile coated with zinc, which is not susceptible to corrosion.
Cellular polycarbonate is a modern material that is quite durable (compared, for example, with glass or, especially, film), fire and wear-resistant, almost transparent. In addition, this material has good thermal insulation, excellent transmittance and light scattering, protects plants from sunburn, and can easily be drilled and cut.
The maximum width of such a greenhouse is 5 meters. The length can be any, but more common sizes are within 15-20 meters. Although polycarbonate can be used to create almost any kind of structure, including dome-shaped ones, however, it is recommended that the roof of such a greenhouse be shed with the height of the southern wall 0.5-0.7 meters lower than the north.
Such a design provides uniform illumination of the greenhouse: the sun's rays will pass through a pitched roof under a more direct beam, warming up the entire space inside the greenhouse. The greenhouse is installed from west to east, and the wall that faces north is made opaque (for example, from a cinder block or a wooden beam).
Greenhouses of this size are rarely made independently, because for this you need to have not only knowledge, but also special equipment. Some models of polycarbonate greenhouses that are on sale are often already equipped with an economical drip irrigation and ventilation system.
The equipment set may also include a fogging plant for cooling the greenhouse, a curtain system for dimming or, conversely, additional illumination. Very popular automatic equipment for the preparation and supply of solutions for feeding flowers, as well as for maintaining the set temperature and humidity conditions in the greenhouse. Of course, you will have to pay for all these bonuses.
The cost of the simplest polycarbonate flower greenhouse starts from 100 thousand rubles. The above-described construction with an area of 100 square meters. meters will cost several times more expensive - in the amount of 500 thousand rubles.
Industrial greenhouse complexes
If we are talking about the construction of not one greenhouse, but the whole greenhouse complex, then its dimensions will differ. The height of the columns can be 4.5-5 meters, the span width is 8-9.6 meters. The columns are installed at a distance of 4-6 meters from each other. A large volume of air allows for slower cooling or heating of the air (which is especially important in the summer months) and to maintain optimal air temperature with lower heat consumption. Often, such enterprises buy farms where greenhouses have already been built with a pitch of up to 6.5 meters and a rack height of up to 3 meters. In this case, the air cubic capacity is increased by lengthening the support posts to 4 meters. The cost of such reconstruction is estimated at about $ 500 thousand / ha.
"Industrial" greenhouses are equipped with a heat distribution system with the ability to adjust it in automatic mode (using a computer). For heating, it is optimal to use the built-in boiler rooms within the greenhouse complex. In addition, a drip irrigation system will be required, which includes a piping system with filter equipment, irrigation water storage tanks, drip lines of various types with compensated droppers, equipment for preparing fertilizer solutions, mixers for solutions, irrigation water aeration systems.
To reduce the overheating of the greenhouse in the summer and to reduce heat loss in the winter, curtain systems with a throughput of 50% are used. Such curtains can save up to 30% of heat. And when using backlighting, they help to increase the level of illumination of plants.
To establish a single temperature throughout the greenhouse, circular hydro-fans are used, to which water is supplied for small-droplet spraying. In the summer, they help lower air temperature and increase humidity. In addition, the intake of fresh air increases the intensity of photosynthesis of flowers.
To sublimate the sulfur used to control powdery mildew, the so-called sulfurators are used, which are uniformly hung over the entire area of the greenhouse and connected to the power supply through a timer or an automation system of the entire greenhouse. As a climate control system, a special computer is used that controls the heating, ventilation, plant nutrition and watering system, CO2 feeding, and evaporative cooling.
The construction of 4 hectares of such greenhouses is about 4.5 million euros. This amount includes materials and equipment, customs duties on equipment, work, transportation costs for the delivery of equipment and materials, refrigeration equipment, sorting line, design and survey work.
Features of growing roses
Using well-equipped greenhouses, roses can be grown almost all year round. However, from December to February, additional heating and artificial lighting of the bushes will be required, which can significantly reduce profitability. For this reason, most flower farms begin to distill, usually in February, which allows you to get stems with beautiful buds from March to November.
If you do not have much experience in floriculture, then do not experiment with varieties. Choose proven grafted or root plants of the following varieties: reddish-orange Zorina, red Better Times, golden yellow Casanova, dark orange Skarlet Gem, white Pascali, yellow Geheimrat Duisberg, bright pink Carina, orange-red Baccara, red-yellow Little Flirt that are successfully cultivated in greenhouse conditions for sale in containers or for cutting. These hybrid tea and miniature varieties are not very demanding on lighting, resistant to the most common diseases (especially powdery mildew), have an attractive presentation and are of high quality. Keep in mind that on high-quality rootstocks, flowers develop much faster than on their own roots, but the number of flowers formed will be less.
Roses are planted in heated greenhouses in January-February in soil enriched with rotted manure and mineral fertilizers - ammonium sulfate, superphosphate, peat. Often used as a substrate is vermiculite, coconut fiber, perlite or mineral wool.
In large greenhouse complexes, the technology of low-volume growing in mats is usually used - bags filled with various substrates (perlite, coconut, mineral wool, peat perlite, etc.). For the price and convenience of irrigation, coke substrates with a fiber length of 16 mm are most optimal. In this case, the cuttings are first rooted in mineral wool or coconut seedling cubes. Compared to other types of substrates, coconut have undoubted advantages: they are inexpensive, they can be used again, because although the coconut fiber is not very durable, it can withstand steam processing.
Mats with a substrate are laid in metal gutters, along which drainage solution is collected. It is displayed in storage tanks or is subjected to ultraviolet sterilization and then used again. Bags are placed in two rows. Up to seven rose bushes are planted per linear meter. Thus, up to 80 thousand bushes can be mixed per 1 ha.
As mentioned above, early planting requires additional exposure of roses. To reduce costs, you can start planting roses in March and continue it until November. Planting material must be carefully protected from low temperatures. Wrap seedlings for storage or stack in open cardboard boxes. For long-term storage, it is recommended to tuck the bushes, leaving room for vaccination. So that the bushes do not dry out, they need to be sprayed regularly.
Before planting, the seedlings are first aged in a container of clean water. Before vaccination, they are cut to about 15 cm and planted in soil heated to 12 degrees Celsius, so that the vaccination site is located on the very surface of the earth. If the soil is too loose, the seedlings are buried, because after the soil shrinks, they will be at the required height. Before planting, weakened side shoots are removed from the seedlings.
The number of seedlings per square meter of greenhouse soil can be from 10 to 30 pieces. In the second year, when planting a large number of seedlings, they are thinned out, halving the number of roses. For the convenience of processing, seedlings are usually located according to schemes 30 to 30 or 25 to 40. Immediately after planting, roses are carefully watered so that the roots settle to the ground. This is best done with a hose, and not with the help of an irrigation system whose jets are not strong enough. In the future, plants should be watered frequently and plentifully. The need for regular watering is indicated by the drying of the soil 2 cm in depth.
Obviously, roses need good lighting to grow. However, many forget that it is necessary to illuminate the plants, not the ground, otherwise the soil will quickly dry out. For this reason, it is not recommended to pick off the leaves covering the soil, without special need. Immediately after planting the seedlings, it is recommended to maintain the air temperature in the greenhouse at 10 degrees Celsius, otherwise they may not take root. Then, after rooting, roses are grown at a temperature of 20-22 degrees. In the summer, you should not allow the temperature to rise above 27 degrees. At night, it is desirable that the temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at 15 degrees. To increase the flowering time of roses, the temperature in the greenhouse is reduced by a couple of degrees.
Humidity in the greenhouse should be at 70%. This is very important, since deviation from this indicator in one direction or another can lead to damage to plants by various diseases. Do not forget to regularly air your greenhouses, loosen the soil, remove weeds.
Inspect your roses as often as possible in order to detect signs of plant damage by pests or fungal diseases. To combat them, special pesticides are used. For the prevention of powdery mildew, as mentioned above, you will need a sulforator, which heats and produces sulfur vapor in the greenhouse. When using such equipment, it is extremely important to comply with all safety regulations in order to prevent fire in the greenhouse. In this case, pure sulfur is not allowed on plants, since it can cause burns on the leaves. The sulforator is usually turned on at night or in the morning, when the lighting is not very intense.
When caring for flowers, experts advise removing all side buds and shoots, leaving only one shoot with 3-4 buds. This will help to form bushes with three to four strong shoots ready for secondary flowering.
Roses are usually cut for sale in the morning, when the buds are just beginning to open. At the first cut, try to leave most of the green mass on the bush, which stimulates the rapid formation of new strong shoots. With proper care and good conditions, from each bush of a greenhouse rose you can collect up to 12 flowers suitable for cutting.
Do not forget that roses are delicate flowers that require especially careful transportation to the place of their sale.
Costs and revenues of growing roses in greenhouses
Roses are always in high demand all year round. The first buds appear a month after planting. The profitability of the flower business is very high and can reach 300%. Although in fact it will average 70%, which is also a very good indicator. With favorable care, roses are characterized by high productivity, which can reach up to 10 kg of green mass per square meter of greenhouse per year.
The cost of arranging one greenhouse will be about 650-700 thousand rubles. 500 thousand rubles of this amount will be spent on the construction and arrangement of the greenhouse itself, and the rest will be used to purchase planting material, inventory, fertilizers and chemicals. Current expenses include heating and lighting of greenhouses, as well as watering. Monthly expenses on these items will amount to 55 thousand rubles.
Profit for the year may be about 3.8 million rubles with a total annual cost of 80 thousand rubles. Net income from the sale of roses will be from 3.5 million rubles per year. It will take about two months to launch the project (installation of greenhouses, planting of seedlings). The first profit should be expected no earlier than six months later. The payback period of such a project is nine months.
For greenhouse complexes, costs and revenues, of course, will be different. Under the most optimal conditions for year-round cultivation from the second year, the yield of roses can reach 200 pcs. per sq. meter with a shoot length of up to 80 cm. For the purchase of planting material of roses will require about $ 750 thousand for 300 thousand pcs. For fertilizers, coconut or mineral wool mats in the amount of 50 thousand pcs. it will take about 200 thousand euros. The payback of such a project is from three to five years, depending on the energy costs, purchased rose varieties and the region where the construction of greenhouses is planned.Sysoeva Lilia
(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to business plans and guidelines for starting a small business 08/18/2019