Tulip is a popular ornamental perennial plant that is grown on an industrial scale in many countries of the world, has many forms and varieties. Homeland Tulip - Central Asia. Flowers appeared in Europe in the 16th century, and were brought into Russia during the reign of Peter the Great, at the beginning of the 18th century. In the XIX century, the mass cultivation of tulips began on the territory of Russia, and since then this flower has been firmly associated with the residents of our country with spring holidays.
Growing a tulip is a profitable business for several reasons. Firstly, this, as mentioned above, is a flower very popular in Russia, the demand for which remains at any time of the year, although tulips are best bought in spring. Secondly, the tulip grows well in the greenhouse, is undemanding in the light and gives a large crop while observing the cultivation technology. The number of tulips obtained from one square measure of the greenhouse area can be from 200 to 300 pieces.
For forcing tulips, use ground greenhouses. One of the most commonly used materials for making greenhouses is polycarbonate. Polycarbonate greenhouses are produced by a large number of companies in different regions of Russia. The requirements for the greenhouse are simple: it must contain the required number of plants, let in sunlight, have artificial electric lighting and allow it to regulate the temperature. Since bulbs need to be cooled before planting tulips in greenhouses, a place for keeping bulbs must be provided in which the temperature will be kept at 5 or 9 degrees, as required by the selected method of cultivation. It can be industrial refrigerators. The cost of a camera of 3 cubic meters is about 14 thousand rubles. Polycarbonate greenhouse 8 meters long, 3 meters wide costs from 10 thousand rubles. Irrigation system will cost 2-3 thousand. Heating should allow to maintain a temperature of 18 degrees in the winter. About 7-10 thousand rubles will have to be spent on electric heating of the greenhouse.
To grow tulips in the winter, you need to select healthy and strong bulbs, since the yield depends on the quality of the bulbs. Bulbs can be purchased at flower farms, the price for a bulb starts from 5 rubles and can reach up to 15-20 rubles, it all depends on the variety. The cost of delivery also affects the cost of the bulb. In the calculations, it should be taken into account that about 3 percent of the bulbs are rejected.
Entrepreneurs involved in the tulip business recommend planting flowers of different colors. Most buyers love bright red tulips. The optimal ratio may be: 40 percent of red tulips, 20 percent of white, 20 percent of yellow and 10 percent of purple.
In greenhouses, it is best to grow tulips of the following varieties: Darwin hybrids, Simple early, Terry early, Triumph, Fringed, Lilium-colored, Simple late.
You can grow bulbs yourself. Bulbs for planting are grown in open ground, flowers should be removed immediately after they bloom. The most favorable moment for digging the bulbs comes when the upper leaves have wilted, the lower ones have turned yellow, and the scales of the bulbs have turned brown. The diameter of the bulb, suitable for winter distillation, is about 3.5 centimeters. This bulb size and round shape suggest that the bulb is healthy, strong and capable of producing a good crop.
Bulbs should be stored at a temperature of 17-20 degrees and a relative humidity of 70-75 percent for 5-6 weeks, until the rudiments of leaves and flower form and a pestle is formed (third tubercle). If the temperature drops below 12 degrees or rises above 26 degrees, this will affect the possibility of forming a flower of the plant. If you need to speed up the process of bulb formation, then the first week they are stored at a temperature of 32-35 degrees, and then reduce the temperature to 17 degrees, which allows you to win two weeks. When the bulb is formed, it must be cooled.
Pure river sand, a mixture of peat and sand, peat and other materials can be used as a substrate. The soil for distillation should have a good uniform structure, easily pass water, contain a small amount of salts and nutrients, be uninfected with pathogenic microorganisms. Before planting, the soil should be prepared: steamed with air heated to 80 degrees and pour fungicide.
Methods for growing tulips in greenhouses
There are two ways to grow tulips in a greenhouse: traditional and Dutch.
The traditional way of growing tulips in a greenhouse
First, consider what is needed for the traditional method, since it is simpler. At the first stage, the bulbs are placed in sandy soil, moistened and stored at a temperature of 10-12 degrees in a dark place. Usually used wooden boxes on the legs, which are easy to make yourself or to order. The size of the box is 70x40x7cm. Up to 110-115 bulbs are planted in a box. The cost of the box will be about 70 rubles. When the plant has taken root and drove a sprout 8-10 centimeters long, the boxes can be placed in the greenhouse. The temperature in the greenhouse is first kept in the region of 13-14 degrees, then rises to 18 degrees. The substrate should be moistened regularly. You can control the speed of development of flowers by lowering or raising the temperature. The flowering period can be increased if you keep the temperature at around 12 degrees.
Dutch technology for growing tulips in a greenhouse
Dutch technology is complicated in that it is necessary to strictly observe the temperature regime. Bulbs cool at 5 degrees for 12 weeks or at 9 degrees for 22 weeks. The temperature remains stable until planting, and the plants planted in wooden crates are in the refrigerator at a humidity of about 90 percent, which is achieved through daily spraying with water. Then the boxes are transferred to the greenhouse, where they maintain a temperature of 18 degrees.
If you use the Dutch growing technology when cooling to 5 degrees, the density of planting bulbs is from 325 to 375 pieces per square meter. During the growth process, bulbs affected by Fusarium infection are removed. As soon as the height of the plants reaches 5-10 centimeters, you should remove the sprouted bulbs, which can cause gray rot in the greenhouse.
The optimum temperature of the soil for rooting is 10-11 degrees, air - 11-13 degrees.
At the stage of half-colored buds, you can cut. Cut tulips are stored in a dark room at a temperature of 1-2 degrees for two weeks. It is often recommended not to cut the flowers, but to pull them out with the bulbs. Firstly, it reduces labor costs, secondly, it improves the preservation of flowers in the warehouse, thirdly, it makes it possible to increase the length of the flower due to the stem inside the bulb, and fourthly. In addition, it is not recommended to leave the bulbs in the greenhouse, as this can lead to the occurrence of fungal diseases.
Growing tulips in a greenhouse with strict temperature control allows you to accurately calculate the date of laying of the bulbs so that the flowers sprout by a certain date. To cut tulips on March 6, you need to put flowers in the greenhouse on February 14, and the bulbs will go to cool on October 25.
The cost of growing one flower in the end will be about 20 rubles. During the celebration of March 8, the retail cost of a tulip is about 70 rubles, wholesale - about 40 rubles. Hundreds of thousands of flowers are sold at this time, because, as mentioned above, a tulip is traditionally a symbol of spring holidays. At other times of the year, tulips also sell well, although not on such a scale as in March.
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