Growing turkeys. Profitability of about 100%

* In calculations, the average data for the World is used 120000 ₽

Minimum starting capital

2-5 years old

Pays off

98%

Profitability

Growing turkeys is a cost-effective livestock industry, which has gained its popularity due to its high profitability with a small amount of costs. The advantages of this type of business are a short time for receiving the product and high consumer demand for dietary meat.

Organization of livestock farming

Turkey meat contains a large amount of iron and protein, has a low amount of adipose tissue. It is recommended for food as people engaged in heavy physical labor, and nursing mothers.

In order for turkey breeding to bring maximum profit, you need to properly organize a livestock farm: choose the right turkey breeds, reasonably approach the creation of a poultry complex, plan its development for the future. The main costs for opening a turkey farm are the purchase of land, the construction of the complex, the installation and commissioning of equipment, the purchase of birds, and the purchase of feed. Production pays off after 2-5 years of successful work. The profitability of breeding turkeys reaches 98 percent. The amount of investment depends on the climate and the selected method of growing turkey, on the farm's own production area.

The indicators of high-quality breeding of turkeys that a beginner farmer should be guided by include high weekly increase (turkey - 145 g, turkey - 90 g), high disease resistance, live and slaughter weight of turkey 81 percent (broiler 72 percent, cattle 60 percent ), the low production cost of one kilogram of turkey meat with the high cost of meat for sale.

In the future, the profitability of production can be increased by building a slaughterhouse on the territory of the economy, having mastered the technology of deep processing of meat and offering the consumer a wide range of turkey products: cut meat, carcasses, sausages, schnitzels, sausages, various semi-finished products.

Types of turkey breeds

A correctly selected breed of birds directly affects the growth of production and profitability of the entire poultry complex. Some breeds allow you to achieve maximum weight gain, while others are characterized by rapid growth. Having studied the features of the breeds, you can choose the optimal cross, ideal for farming tasks.

In our country, most turkey species are grown in households, which are the result of unsystematic crossbreeding between different breeds. They adapt well to local conditions, but are characterized by low egg production and not the best meat qualities. Adult males weigh about 6-8 kilograms, and females 4-5 kilograms.

For industrial breeding, one of the best breeds is considered to be the Bronze Shirokogrudy breed. These are very large representatives of their kind. Females reach a size of 7-9 kilograms, and males 10-15 kilograms. The breed was bred in America, but perfectly established in Russia and is actively used for industrial breeding. The disadvantage of the Bronze broad-breasted turkey is its inability to grazing, it was bred only for keeping in cages and poultry houses. Bronze broad-breasted turkeys can bring up to 120 eggs per year, which is an excellent indicator that distinguishes this breed from others. Average egg fertility is 80 percent. Conclusion of turkey poults - up to 75 percent. Slaughter can be carried out at the age of 20-23 weeks. Males at this time weigh 13-15 kilograms, and females 7-8 kilograms.

The North Caucasian bronze turkey is a bird well adapted to grazing. Adult males weigh 14 kilograms and females 7 kilograms. Oviposition begins at nine months, lasts up to six months, in one period the female brings about 80 eggs.

White broad-breasted turkey has excellent meat properties, grows quickly, adapts well to different climates. Egg production starts from 9 months, lasts more than six months. For the period from the female, you can get up to 120 eggs. White broad-breasted turkey comes in three varieties: heavy, medium and light. Males can weigh up to 25 kilograms, and females up to 10 kilograms.

Cross BIG-6 is characterized by high meat qualities and rapid growth. The breed is heavy. Recommended for breeding for meat. The weight of the male reaches 25 kilograms, and the female - 11 kilograms. BIG-6 has a record yield of net weight - 80-85 percent, not one pet in the world can compare with this figure. A big disadvantage of breeding this breed is the impossibility of natural insemination of females, because the male is so large that the female can not climb onto it without injuring herself. Therefore, to breed this breed, artificial insemination of the bird is required.

The poultry farm can deal with both turkey breeding and the purchase of eggs or chicks for rearing for meat. A turkey incubation egg costs from 100 rubles apiece. The incubation period is 28 days. An incubator for 1000 eggs costs about 25 thousand rubles.

Daily chicks of a turkey cost from 150 rubles. Overexposure is paid extra; chicks are becoming more expensive every day. Poultry farms, as a rule, have a schedule for hatching poultry and the buyer knows exactly when to come to pick up the chicks. The need for the systematic transportation of chicks, eggs, animal feed and other goods makes the purchase of vehicles, for example, a cargo minibus, mandatory. Own transport is not cheap, from 500 thousand rubles, but successful production will quickly pay back all costs.

Types of Turkey Content

Before planning the construction of a poultry farm, the farmer needs to determine the type of turkey maintenance. There are various methods for growing turkeys: extensive, semi-intensive, cellular, floor. It is possible to alternate the methods of keeping the bird depending on weather conditions, the age of the bird, the purpose of rearing, the species of bird. We will consider what methods of growing turkey exist, what equipment is needed, how much it costs on average in Russia.

The farmer must take into account the main environmental factors affecting the viability and productive qualities of turkeys. The main factors are the duration and intensity of light, temperature and composition of the air, food supply, habitat size, diseases of various nature, bird genotype.

In the southern regions of the country, it is possible to use an extensive turkey breeding system, in which the action of factors of natural origin predominates. Young animals are kept in a heated room for only the first one and a half to two months of life, and then they are brought to pasture and kept on free-range keeping until slaughtered for meat. In order for the birds to be able to shelter from the weather and spend the night, pens with feeders and drinking bowls are built on the territory of the pasture, the floor is covered with bedding. A water supply system should be connected to the pens, electric lighting is also desirable. To temporarily keep the dead carcasses of corpses on the site, it is necessary to provide sealed containers, and for keeping culled birds - insulators.

Poultry is grown in a room with a heated floor from the first days of life, and from one and a half to two months of age they are transferred to an open range, if weather conditions permit. Birds are grazed in groups of 1-1.5 thousand heads. If necessary, the herd is divided into parts, the territory is partitioned so that the turkeys do not mix. The grazing area should be at least 20 square meters per bird. It is advisable to have two sites for grazing, since the use of only one site can lead to various diseases of turkeys. At the age of 110-120 days, turkeys begin puberty, and males and females need to be separated and further kept separate, since males can damage females.

To grow a herd of 2000 goals, an area of ​​about 8 hectares will be required. The cost of renting a hectare of land with utilities in the south of the country varies greatly, can range from 5 to 20 thousand rubles a year.

The site is fenced with a fence of at least three meters in height, as young animals are able to fly over short distances. The fence must be reliable enough to prevent wild and stray animals from grazing. The animals bite or strangle a few heads at most, but they scare the whole population, and then a large number of birds can die from the crush.

During the period of detention in a heated room for feeding, feed mixtures are used, consisting of cereals, legumes, dairy waste and slaughter of livestock, vegetables, herbs, etc. In the pasture period, top dressing with grain mixtures and mineral feeds is necessary in order to increase the calorie content of the diet and provide birds with mineral substances necessary for normal growth and development.

When grazing, service personnel must constantly be present to protect the livestock from possible dangers, drive the herd under awnings in case of bad weather, maintain the territory: clean the pen, fill up the feed, adjust the amount of water, clean up the spilled feed, clean the feeders and drinkers. The average salary of a working poultry farm in Russia is 15 thousand rubles.

All employees of the poultry farm should wear protective clothing and footwear on the farm and take it off when leaving the turkey’s habitat to reduce the incidence of birds.

Features of the walking method of keeping turkeys

The main advantage of the walking method of breeding turkeys is a significant cost savings on the maintenance of birds. Indoors, turkeys are kept only in the cold season, and then live in the field, which reduces the cost of electricity and housekeeping. In addition, with an extensive breeding system, turkeys are more resistant to various diseases, for example, respiratory diseases and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

The downside is the impossibility of grazing birds in colder areas. In Russia, the walking system is used mainly in the North Caucasus zone. The territory for the poultry farm requires much more extensive than with cell breeding. Also, with adverse natural phenomena, hypothermia or overheating of birds is possible. With an unbalanced diet - vitamin deficiency.

In addition, with an extensive breeding system, production is seasonal in nature, while with cell or outdoor breeding seasonality can be avoided.

Cellular content of turkeys

Cellular maintenance of birds requires the construction of a capital house with a system for maintaining the necessary microclimate (ventilation and heating), but it will allow to obtain a larger volume of production per unit of production capacity. This method of growing birds is suitable for light and medium types of turkey breeds, and heavy breeds are usually grown at outdoor content, so adult males reach a weight of 25 kilograms, and it is quite difficult to provide them with cells of sufficient size.

Also, the cellular system is good for keeping pedigree young animals and fattening females for meat. The efficiency of the cellular method lies in the fact that the average daily increase in live weight increases by 10-15 percent, and the cost of food decreases by 5-8 percent, significantly increases labor productivity. It is recommended to keep laying turkeys in the cages and produce artificial insemination of birds. In addition, the solitary content of breeding males improves the hygiene of sperm production.

The content of turkeys in the cells throughout the life of the bird is still not recommended, since over time the growth rate of young animals decreases, leg weakness, broken wings, etc. Most often, young animals are placed in the cells, which are then transferred to outdoor maintenance or not grazing, if the climate allows.

As a house, prefabricated frame hangars are used, in which the ventilation system is installed. They are much cheaper than brick buildings, and are great for poultry needs. The construction of an insulated frame-panel house will cost about $ 40 per square meter of area. Thus, the construction of the building for 500 goals will cost about 10 thousand dollars. Equipping the house with lighting and a ventilation and heating system will cost another 80-100 thousand rubles.

It is recommended to keep no more than two birds in one cage. The turkey contained in the cells has a high degree of anxiety. Any noise or the appearance of animals in the room can lead to severe panic and broken wings, bruises, injuries, and so on, as the bird will tend to escape from the cage at all costs.

Cellular contents of turkeys use cell batteries, as a rule, two-tier, domestic and imported. Cages for chickens are often taken, as they are easier to buy. Cages should be equipped with feeding hoppers, a watering system and a litter system. The cost of a cell battery for 70 heads is about 30 thousand rubles. In the absence of factory equipment, cells can be manufactured independently.

Features of the turkey flooring system

Now consider the features of the floor turkey containment system. Typically, this method is used for meat cultivation of poultry, it is recommended for the maintenance of various breeds, including heavy ones.

The room should be heated, well-lit, have a forced ventilation system. The floor covering can be litter, mesh, slatted, crevice, combined. The litter cover is made mainly of wood shavings, as it absorbs moisture well, isolates birds from the cold floor, and acts as a shock absorber in stressful situations. Softwood sawdust is recommended. Straw can be used for turkey poults, as they eat sawdust, and this can lead to blockage of goiter. Litter needs to be changed once a month.

Wood shavings are usually purchased at the wood processing industry immediately in large quantities. Negotiable price.

The territory of the house with a long content of turkey is divided by partitions, birds are kept in groups depending on age, gender, health status. The height of the partitions should reach the ceiling so that the bird could not fly into another section.

There are certain standards for the density of turkeys in the outdoor cultivation method. Density is determined by the amount of final live weight that is planned to be obtained. When slaughtering a bird aged 13-14 weeks with a live weight of 6 kilograms, the landing density should not exceed 5 animals per square meter. With a live weight of 8.5 kilograms - not more than 3.6 heads per square meter, with a mass of 11-12 kilograms - 3.2 heads per square meter of area. The size of a group of turkey poults should not exceed 250 individuals; the size of a group of meat turkeys should not exceed 500 individuals.

Below is a table that allows you to calculate the density of landing of turkeys depending on age according to Russian standards. Unit of measurement - goals per square meter.

Age,

turkey poults

weeks

Paternal severe forms

Maternal lungs

______

Males

Females

Average ♂ + ♀

Males

Females

Average ♂ + ♀

Cultivation of breeding turkey poultry with sex division per day.

1-8

3, 5

4, 5

4.0

3, 5

4, 5

4.0

9-12

3.0

4.0

3, 5

3, 5

4, 5

4.0

13-17

2.0

3.0

2.5

2, 4

3.6

3.0

18-21

1, 0

2.0

-

1, 5

2.5

-

22-30

1, 0

2.0

-

1, 5

2.5

-

Cultivation of breeding turkey poults without division by sex per day.

1-17

-

-

3.0

-

-

4.0

18-26

-

-

2.0

-

-

3.0

27-33

-

-

2.0

-

-

2.5

Growing meat poultry

1-16

-

5, 0

4.0

-

6.0

5, 0

1-23

3.0

-

4.0

4.0

-

5, 0

9-16

-

4.7

3.8

-

5, 0

4.0

9-23

2, 8

-

3.8

3.0

-

4.0

Numerous trading companies in Russia are involved in the supply of equipment for poultry houses. Many offer equipment delivery to the regions. Their contacts are easy to find over the Internet. Prices for feeders and drinking bowls depend on the size of the goods, the material from which it is made, the manufacturer. As a rule, a feeder for 20-25 individuals costs about 400-500 rubles. Drinking bowl - 300-400 rubles.

Also, poultry houses are equipped with perches and nests for laying eggs. Perches are wooden bars or poles that are installed at a height of 90-100 centimeters. Nests for laying eggs should be 60 to 60 centimeters in size.

Calculation of adult turkey feed intake

Compound feed for turkey is sold at poultry feed factories, usually packaged in bags of 20 kilograms and costs about 600 rubles a pack.

The feed requirement for one adult turkey for 21 weeks of egg laying is 42.6 kilograms. Repairing young maternal forms for 33 weeks of cultivation consumes 52 kilograms of feed. Repair young growth of paternal forms consumes 59 kilograms for 33 weeks of cultivation. Самки, выращиваемые на мясо, за первые 8 недель потребляют 3, 8 килограмма корма, а с 9 по 16 неделю – 11 килограмм корма. Самцы за 8 недель потребляют 4, 2 килограмм корма, а с 9 по 16 неделю – 27 килограмм.

Если обратиться к опыту содержания индеек успешными фермерскими хозяйствами, то можно сказать, что оптимальным является выращивание четырех возрастных групп с интервалом посадки в 6 недель, благодаря чему можно всегда иметь мясо на убой.

Экономически целесообразно не оставлять индейку весом более 12 килограмм, а индюка весом более 22 килограмм, так как едят они много, а прироста веса уже нет.

Для поддержания здоровья индеек важно проводить вакцинацию птенцов. Обычно вакцинируют поголовье от болезни Ньюкасла, ринотрахеита, кокцидиоза и других болезней. Лечение индеек нерентабельно, намного выгоднее заботиться о здоровье птицы с самого начала. Затраты на вакцинацию одной особи составляют около 50 рублей.

Потери на самках за весь период выращивания составляют около 2 процентов, на самцах – 6 процентов.

Наличие при птицеферме убойного цеха позволит расширить клиентскую базу, поскольку не все покупатели готовы затрачивать усилия на убой птицы. Большинство хозяйств, занимающихся выращиванием индейки, отмечает отсутствие проблем со сбытом и высокую рентабельность этого бизнеса, составляющую, как уже упоминалось ранее, 98 процентов.

Merkulova Natalya

(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides

08/18/2019


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