In botany and in cooking, the word "nut" is understood differently. From a scientific point of view, nuts mean the fruits of a very limited number of plants, while in everyday life it is believed that nuts are represented by almonds, pine nuts, cashews, pistachios, peanuts, coconut and many other fruits that are not very common and not popular in Russia . A real nut is the fruit of a hazel, or hazel, which has nothing to do with the nut family, but its fruit - hazelnuts (or hazelnuts) - is a classic example of this type of fruit. Of the common foods, walnuts and acorns, which also include edible chestnuts, are also nuts. Thus, in this article we will consider the cultivation of real nuts that are in demand on the Russian market: hazelnuts, walnuts and chestnuts.
It should be noted right away that the cultivation of such fruits as beech nuts, which in some regions of Russia are consumed in amounts comparable to the volumes of consumption of sunflower seeds, is also promising directions. The walnut family also has several species with edible fruits, these are pecans and black, gray and Manchurian nuts. However, due to the fact that they are rarely traditionally eaten in this country, their cultivation cannot be called a highly profitable business. Also, these plants can often be cultivated only in a limited area of the country, so their cultivation is even less common.
To work, you need to register the form of a business entity. The cultivation of nuts is fully related to agriculture, if their subsequent processing is not expected. If you plan to have a plot of less than one hectare, then you can not register, remaining the owner of a personal subsidiary farm (LPH), which is not considered a form of entrepreneurship. In this case, you can sell the surplus of the received products without the need for reporting, because it is believed that private household plots are for personal use. But in the case when the area exceeds one hectare, registration is necessary, because according to the law such activities fall under industrial cultivation. In this case, it is better to register your peasant farm (peasant farm), which is essentially an association of several citizens, although it can be founded by one person.
You can register and just a legal entity, and become an individual entrepreneur, and in all these cases you can pay taxes in the amount of only six percent (a single agricultural tax of the Unified Agricultural Tax for the peasant farms and a simplified tax system for the simplified tax system for individual entrepreneurs and LLC). The activity code is the same when growing all real nuts and falls under (OKPD 2) 01.25 Fruits of other fruit trees, shrubs and nuts.
The site must be chosen so as to place on it plants that live a very long time. Many plantings of walnuts and chestnuts become a family business, which is passed on from generation to generation, because these trees can bear fruit for decades; for example, walnuts remain productive even at the age of 500 years. Even hazel, being a bush plant, bears fruit for 30 years, after which it can be “renewed” in order to completely restore all its properties. Walnut trees are also valued for high-quality wood, but there is no way to build a business for growing with subsequent cutting of trees, because it takes a lot of time for the tree to become large enough to produce large volumes of quality wood. But to obtain fruits, it is worth considering the option of renting land only if it is supposed to be gradually redeemed. Otherwise, it is likely to invest significant funds and not get anything at all.
The nut growing business is a long-term business. Many varieties of these plants begin to bear fruit only after 5 years, and sometimes later, so the invested funds will return very soon. Therefore, it is very good to start growing nut plants in multidisciplinary farms. Large trees that have not yet begun to bear fruit, but already have a spreading crown, well obscure the area, which makes it possible to grow shade-loving crops under them between rows. Also, these trees are honey plants, and their pollination is not least dependent on insects. Therefore, orchards of walnut trees go well with their own apiary, but the honey obtained from chestnut is very low in value, and it is not advisable to have it only as a honey plant. Nevertheless, it is not worth it to deal with walnut-fruit crops alone, because profits will appear after a long period of time, and you will have to invest a lot of money on tree care. At the same time, their benefit for their economy can be very large even when they do not bear fruit.
They remove nuts with the help of special machines, which can be universal, but also cost more, and can be specialized. If there is a garden of fruit crops, then it is better to take a universal device that will be used constantly. You can, of course, harvest by hand, but this is too time-consuming and requires the attraction of a large amount of hired force. Machines for harvesting nuts are special “shakers” that grab the tree trunk and shake them intensely, after which the crop itself falls to its feet. To do this, you must first prepare the ground under the tree, so as not to lose fruit. Nuts do not beat on the ground, so their harvest is much easier than picking fruit with pulp. Also, if hazel is grown, then it is harvested, usually by hand, because it is a shrub on which not too many nuts grow.
Chestnut. Cultivated species - Castánea satíva, Beech family. It is this plant that gives the edible fruits, although it is very easy to confuse it with the common esculus (видsculus species). The latter is often used in plantations, landscaping and artificial forests, but its fruits are poisonous to humans, although they are very similar to the fruits of chestnut. This plant generally belongs to the Sapindaceӕ family. It is difficult to grow edible sowing chestnut in central Russia, since it is not a winter-hardy plant, and can die after the very first frosts. Chestnut is cultivated in the south of Russia, and there it can give a good harvest after reaching its maturity. In addition to the climate, chestnut is very demanding on the quality of the soil, and the seed must be planted to a considerable depth. However, edible chestnut trees are grown, usually from seedlings. You can buy them at a relatively low price of 250 rubles per seedling. But some other varieties (for example, Japanese chestnut or notched chestnut) are somewhat more expensive.
Up to 120 plants can be placed on one hectare, and thus 30 thousand rubles will be needed to buy all the seedlings. It should be borne in mind that the chestnut crown is the thickest and worst of all transmits light, which is why it is difficult to grow something under it, unlike walnuts.
The chestnut, which grows in natural conditions, can begin to bear fruit only after 10-20 years, but now the cultivars begin to yield 4-6 years of age. Like all fruit trees, the maximum yield will be achieved only after about 10 years of life, but at the age of five, the chestnut can provide its owner with a decent amount of fruit.
From an adult tree you can collect an average of 150 kilograms of nuts, which is 18 tons per hectare. If we take into account that the average price per kilogram of edible chestnuts is 400 rubles, then the income per hectare will amount to 7 million 200 thousand rubles. It should also be borne in mind that chestnuts are grown by a small number of farms, which allows them to be sold to a large number of buyers at high prices. Of course, the economic value of chestnut is slightly lower than that of walnuts or hazelnuts, and it is popular in many European countries, but not in Russia, but it is used not only in its raw form, but also as an ingredient in many dishes.
Hazel. Also often called hazel, and is a close relative of birch, but not walnut. This species of Corylus avellana gives mankind the fruits that are commonly called hazelnuts. This plant grows in the wild, and the cultivar is called Hazel large (Corylus maxima). The fruits of this plant are called hazelnuts, although their appearance and taste are not much different from hazelnuts. In addition to active consumption in food, hazelnuts are also used as a substitute for almonds, because they not only taste like it, but also give a similar oil. However, hazelnut is still a substitute for almonds, and is valued slightly less. In Russia, this plant can grow in many regions, so it is usually not difficult to deal with it. Hazel grows well in lighted areas, it needs a lot of moisture and phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. An excess of potassium can adversely affect productivity, which may not be at all in some years.
This plant is planted in early October or very early spring, while it should be borne in mind that one plant needs about 36 m2, despite the fact that it is a shrub, and not a large tree. One hectare can accommodate no more than 270 plants, however, there are varieties that are designed for intensive agriculture, and then you can place up to 600 plants per hectare. Therefore, you first need to familiarize yourself with the variety that is planned to be planted. In this case, it is best to purchase several different varieties of this plant, because their cross-pollination will allow you to get the greatest yield and have healthier plants.
Fertilizing hazel begins only in the second year of life, while organic fertilizer is also introduced. The yield of this plant is about one ton per hectare, which is an order of magnitude less than other nut-bearing plants. There are varieties that give more fruit, but an average of one ton is even considered good. In lean years, it is possible to collect very little hazelnuts, and therefore its price in the market is stably high. However, proper cultivation reduces the risk of crop loss; and last but not least, it depends on pest protection.
So, to get your walnut garden, you need to buy 270 seedlings at 300 rubles (the cost of some varieties can reach 700 rubles). The cost per hectare is 81 thousand rubles. To hang the cost of their products, hazelnuts can be cleaned with special equipment. Its cost is about two million rubles, but then the cost of a kilogram of hazelnuts will increase from 400 rubles to 700. That is, instead of 400 thousand rubles, it will be possible to gain 700 thousand from one hectare. But it is cost-effective to purchase such equipment with a plot size of 5-10 hectares. Then it will be possible to quickly recoup the invested funds and engage in purposefully selling precisely peeled fruits. Equipment can cost more if you buy it from a Chinese manufacturer, and then the equipment will be of higher quality and will last longer, but its cost is much higher.
This plant also begins to bear fruit at 4-5 years of its life, up to 20-30 years of age giving an annual crop. But the hazel tree that has ceased to bear fruit is cut off, leaving the root and covered with fertile soil. In the next season, an updated plant will grow, which will again bear fruit. At the same time, hazel wood obtained after cutting is a valuable resource that can be sold at a high price.
Walnut Also called royal nut, view - Júglans régia. A very famous and popular culture. It is currently used in a very large number of industries, and there is a shortage of this product on the market. Growing a walnut is a highly profitable business, which, unfortunately, will also begin to make profit only after 5-6 years. Ground under the nut must be landscaped with a drainage system, because excess water adversely affects this plant. It is very demanding on light, so you need to select well-lit areas with good air recirculation - this is necessary so that the cold air masses do not linger on the site.
For effective cultivation, you need to allocate a very large area per plant. A nut will develop correctly and produce a good harvest only if no less than a macaw of land is allocated for it, that is, one hundred square meters. It turns out that only 100 trees can get along on one hectare, and this is a very small indicator for cultivated plants. The plant is relatively frost-resistant, especially for young non-bearing plants. Mature trees after severe frosts can significantly reduce productivity. Therefore, the trees must be constantly properly taken care of, applying the necessary fertilizers according to the schedule. Until the tree bears fruit, other garden crops that do not like large amounts of light can and should be grown under it. When the tree begins to bear fruit, it is better to free the earth only under it.
The cost of one walnut seedling is 400 rubles, and then an amount equal to 40 thousand rubles will be required per hectare. When the trees begin to bear fruit, they will enter a five-year period of low productivity, after which they will begin to produce a large number of fruits, preserving this ability for centuries.
One hectare will be able to collect about 3 tons of the crop, but only 60% of this will be the kernels themselves, which are valued in the food industry. It turns out that the useful yield per hectare of a walnut tree garden will be 1.8 tons. But there are peeled kernels at 600 rubles per kilogram, and then the income from this site may be slightly more than 1 million rubles. As already noted, walnuts are currently considered a scarce commodity, so any quantity of products received will be sold with a high degree of probability. Growing a walnut can become a truly family-owned business that will provide more than one generation of a farmer's family. After all, you can not be limited to just one hectare of plantings.
We can say that growing nuts today is a very, very promising occupation, because they are used in many industries (not only in food, but also in cosmetics, paint and varnish, which require large amounts of nut oil). At the same time, the market feels the need for these products, not too many nuts are grown because of their long period before fruiting and large areas that do not participate in crop rotation and are simply withdrawn for these crops. But growing nuts is relatively simple, walnut trees have always been the natural inhabitants of the flora of Russia. Thanks to breeding work today, it became possible to cultivate these plants where they initially could not grow. In this regard, the cultivation of nuts can be considered a business designed for many years, starting to make a profit only after a few years, but profitable and fit well into a diversified economy.
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