1. SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project is the organization of its own business in the cultivation of cherry tomatoes indoors and their further implementation in fresh form. The project will be implemented in the Rostov region, in a rural area, in the immediate vicinity of the main sales market - the city of Rostov-on-Don. The success factors of the project include:
the possibility of year-round tomato growing through the use of winter greenhouses;
the growing popularity of cherry tomatoes in Russia;
favorable market conditions (reduction of imports, state policy of import substitution);
promotion of organic products;
For the implementation of the project, it is planned to buy an agricultural plot 25 km from the city of Rostov-on-Don. The plot area is 400 square meters. m., which will be located two greenhouses.
Target audience (end users) - people from 25-50 years old with income level “average” and “above average”.
It is planned to sell products through the following distribution channels: retail grocery stores with a wide range of products; network grocery networks; farm stalls; institutions of the HoReCa segment - restaurants and cafes. Moreover, the geography of cooperation covers not only the city of Rostov-on-Don, but also other cities of the region.
The volume of initial investments is 1, 600, 000 rubles. Investment costs are directed to the construction of a greenhouse complex, the purchase of equipment for irrigation and the creation of an appropriate microclimate, the purchase of seedlings, the formation of a working capital fund until the project reaches a return on investment. The bulk of the required investment is in the acquisition of equipment, whose share is 79%. Own funds will be used to implement the project.
Financial calculations cover the five-year period of operation of the project. In accordance with the calculations, the initial investment will pay off for 17-18 months of work. The return on sales in the first year of operation will be 17.8%. Integrated indicators of project performance are presented in table 1.
Table 1. Key performance indicators of the project
Payback period (PP), months
Discount payback period (DPP), months
Net present value (NPV), rub.
Return on Investment (ARR), %
Internal rate of return (IRR), %
2. DESCRIPTION OF THE INDUSTRY AND COMPANY
The greenhouse business in Russia is a promising area, which is explained by the growing demand for fresh vegetables and greens, a fashion for healthy nutrition, and a state priority for the development of agriculture in the country. Today, the state is increasingly focusing on the development of the industry, helping beginners and existing farmers, allocating land at preferential rates, subsidizing interest rates on loans and providing grants for the development of greenhouses. However, the main problem holding back the development of the industry remains high utility tariffs.
The Russian tomato market is characterized by a low level of self-sufficiency. Tomatoes are mainly delivered to Russia from abroad. Own production for the most part is the cultivation of tomatoes in the open field. Although this approach allows you to get tomatoes of excellent taste quality, but cannot provide products in the off-season, covering demand only in August-September. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, off-season production using winter greenhouses is less than a quarter of the volume imported into the Russian Federation.
Statistics from Rosstat indicate that in recent years, sown area for the cultivation of open soil tomatoes in the commodity sector (agricultural organizations, peasant farms and private enterprises) has been reduced. So from 2011 to 2015, they decreased by 5 thousand hectares. At the same time, open-field tomato harvests, against the background of a reduction in area, on the contrary, are gradually increasing. Over the same period, charges in the commodity sector increased by 23 thousand tons. Experts attribute the increase in productivity with the introduction of drip irrigation by agricultural producers during the cultivation of tomatoes.
In the past few years, tomato imports have shown a steady downward trend amid weakening ruble exchange rates and the government’s policy of import substitution. This fact has a positive effect on the investment attractiveness of the greenhouse business, but at the same time it negatively affects the import of seeds for sowing, which are not produced in Russia, as well as some types of materials and equipment. In 2015, Turkey was the leader in imports (over 52% of imports). In 2016, the situation changed due to the introduction of an embargo on vegetables from this country. According to the results of nine months of 2016, the main suppliers were representatives of Morocco (88.7 thousand tons) and Azerbaijan (86 thousand tons), which added 158% and 56% immediately in deliveries to our country, respectively. However, these countries could not replace Turkey - the total decline in imports in the III quarter of 2016 amounted to 32% (365 thousand tons). Earlier, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation voiced plans to lift the embargo on Turkish vegetables no earlier than 2-3 years later in order to promote the development of its own industry for the production of domestic greenhouse products. In connection with all of the above, we can conclude that the current period can be called relatively favorable for starting a business for growing tomatoes in closed ground.
This project provides for the organization of its own cherry growing business - a variety of tomatoes with small fruits. Cherry tomatoes are used as a snack, for the preparation of salads, canning, drying, decorating dishes. In Russia, cherry has become popular in recent years, appearing first in the restaurant menu, and then on store shelves. In our country, this type of tomato is mainly an imported product and is supplied from countries such as Israel, Egypt, Turkey, Morocco, Poland, the Netherlands and others. Every year, cherry causes more and more demand among Russians due to its taste, as well as its unusual and presentable appearance. In addition, this type of tomato is also very useful, as the tomato benefits are concentrated in it. For example, cherry contains more lycopene, which is an antioxidant that helps fight cardiovascular diseases, more than regular tomatoes. In addition, cherry can be kept fresh longer. In our case, it is planned to sell fresh cherry. When choosing cherry varieties, it was decided to focus on the following factors: taste, ripening and storage time, the complexity of care.
The project involves the cultivation of cherry in closed ground with a total area of greenhouses of 320 square meters. meters. Greenhouses will be built on a plot of 400 square meters. meters, located in an ecologically clean area of the Rostov region, 25 km from the city of Rostov-on-Don, which is the center of the region. A business is opened from scratch, in connection with which registration of an individual entrepreneur is carried out, staff recruitment takes place. Investment funds are allocated for the acquisition of fixed assets and working capital until the enterprise returns to payback.
3. DESCRIPTION OF GOODS
Cherry tomatoes will be sold fresh. The products meet the requirements of GOST R 55906-2013 “Fresh tomatoes. Technical conditions. ” As packaging for fresh products, transparent plastic containers with a volume of 250 ml are used, which can improve the presentation of products and simplify transportation.
Table 2. Description of goods
Fresh, packed cherry tomatoes, 250 g. Retail price - 140 rubles.
Wholesale price - 75 rubles.
Fresh cherry tomatoes
4. SALES AND MARKETING
Successful marketing requires a competent marketing strategy. Product sales channels will be:
retail grocery stores with a wide range of products;
network grocery networks;
farm stalls that specialize in the sale of environmentally friendly products made in Russia;
HoReCa establishments are restaurants and cafes, as cherry is an ingredient in salads and many dishes such as pizza.
Promising markets include online stores, which have recently gained popularity and offer customers fresh, farm products. To develop this sales market, you can team up with vegetable cooperatives represented on Internet sites. In the future, with proper advertising of its products, it is possible to open its own outlet.
Each distribution channel has its advantages and disadvantages, which relate to the total cost of greenhouse tomatoes, volumes of sold lots, terms of cooperation, etc. In order to establish sales channels and not suffer losses from overproduction, it is necessary to create a stable sales network a few months before harvesting.
Attracting customers and working with them is a sales specialist.
Target audience (end users) - people from 25-50 years old with income level “average” and “above average”, gender and occupation as such do not play a role. Promotion is carried out in various ways, including: printing and distributing advertising leaflets at points of sale, promotions at points of sale, increasing brand awareness through advertising on social networks. At the initial stage, expenses in the amount of 20, 000 rubles are planned to conduct an advertising campaign.
The competitiveness of the project is ensured by high quality products. The naturalness of products focuses on all promotional events.
When planning the volume of sales, production capacities should be taken into account, since the maximum volume of production depends on the area of greenhouses, tomato varieties and their productivity, as well as the conditions in which the cherry was grown. The maximum production volume is calculated based on the area of greenhouses - 320 sq. m., the average ripening period of 70 days and the average yield of cherry - 13 kg per 1 square. m. In total, the yield of the greenhouse will be 20800 kg a year, and about 1734 kg per month. This indicator should be guided when planning sales.
Demand for products has no pronounced seasonality. The planned sales volume is calculated based on the sale of 100% of the crop at an average market (wholesale) price of 300 rubles / kg.
Thus, the average revenue will amount to 520, 000 rubles per month. It is planned to reach the declared sales volume for the third month of work.
Table 3. Planned sales
Average planned sales, kg. / Month.
Price per kg, rub.
5. PRODUCTION PLAN
The company is located on the acquired land area of 400 square meters. meters, located in an ecologically clean area of the Rostov region. 25 km from the enterprise is the city of Rostov-on-Don. The cost of agricultural land is 200, 000 rubles.
The production technology involves the creation of 2 greenhouses (total area - 320 sq. Meters), the use of irrigation equipment and equipment to maintain the microclimate at different times of the year. The process of planting seedlings, some care operations, as well as harvesting is carried out manually. The production cycle takes about 80 days.
The volume of investments required to create greenhouses and industrial premises is 1, 264, 700 rubles. Of these, 552, 200 rubles. - funds for the construction of greenhouses, 712 500 rubles. - purchase and installation of equipment, a list of which is given in table 4.
The selection of the necessary equipment was carried out based on the recommendations of farms. So, to save money on heating, it is planned to install a universal boiler for heating, operating on all types of fuel. For heating greenhouses, a classic water heating system will be used, consisting of a network of pipes closed to the boiler. In addition, soil heating is provided, which will create the optimal temperature regime for the underground parts of plants.
Watering plants is also automated - drip irrigation technology is used.
Lighting for greenhouses is provided by LED lamps, which have spectral characteristics that are completely identical to sunlight. This ensures the normal process of photosynthesis in plants. In addition, LED lamps can save up to 60% of energy and do not heat up.
Table 4. The list of equipment
Total cost, rub.
1600 (per 1 sq.m)
Drip Irrigation System "Drops"
Equipment for creating a microclimate
Copper for heating KCHM-5k-03M
Set of soil heating Green Box Agro 14 GBA-1480
Led grow light 90w UFO
For planting in the greenhouse, it is planned to purchase cherry tomato seeds with a yield of 12-14 kg / sq. m. Tomatoes with different ripening periods should be planted in the greenhouse: super-early varieties will yield crops 70 days after sowing, and later varieties 100-120 days later. At the initial stage, it is recommended to plant at least 10 varieties in order to select the most suitable ones in the future. Experienced gardeners specialize in the 3-4 most productive varieties.
For sowing, you need to purchase seeds, the cost of which is 18, 000 (per year). Also provided for the costs of biofertilizers and processing facilities - 20, 000 rubles per year.
Delivery of finished products to outlets is carried out by a regular driver.
6. ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN
To implement the project, an IP with a simplified taxation system is registered (“income” at a rate of 6%). Type of activity according to OKVED-2 for growing vegetables in any type of soil:
08/18/2019 - Growing vegetables.
To ensure the operation of the enterprise, it will be necessary to hire workers, which include a technologist, 2 workers, a sales manager, an accountant, a driver.
The technologist is responsible for the entire technological process of growing crops; daily monitors the condition of plants, climatic conditions and equipment health; controls the process of plant care and the staff of greenhouses; conducts acts of writing off materials.
Working greenhouses carry out work on preparing greenhouses for planting, planting and caring for plants, contain greenhouses and the adjacent territory in an exemplary sanitary condition.
An individual entrepreneur, performing all managerial and accounting functions, is also engaged in the search and adjustment of sales channels, and is negotiating with partners.
The forwarding driver is responsible for route planning and product delivery to points of sale. At the initial stage, it is planned to hire a driver with a personal truck.
The total wage fund is 162500 rubles.
Table 5. Staffing and payroll
Number of people
₽ 125, 000.00
Social Security contributions:
37 500, 00 ₽
$ 162, 500.00
7. FINANCIAL PLAN
The financial plan takes into account all the income and expenses of the project, the planning horizon is 5 years.
To start a project, you need to calculate the amount of investment. To do this, you need to determine the costs of building a greenhouse, acquiring equipment, purchasing seedlings and generating working capital to cover losses in the initial periods.
The project requires the attraction of investment funds in the amount of 1, 600, 000 rubles. The main part of the required investments falls on the purchase of equipment - 79%, the share of expenses for the purchase of the site - 13%, and the remaining costs - 8%. The project is funded by equity. The main items of investment costs are shown in table 6.
Table 6. Investment costs
Set of equipment
1, 265, 000
Starting advertising campaign
Purchase of seeds, biofertilizers, etc.
1 600 000₽
Variable costs include expenses for the purchase of seeds and fertilizers, packaging of products and energy spent on production. To simplify financial calculations, the value of variable costs is calculated based on the wholesale cost of 300 rubles / kg and a fixed trade margin of 300%.
Fixed costs include advertising, depreciation and other expenses (table. 7). The amount of depreciation is determined by the linear method, based on the useful life of fixed assets of 5 years. Fixed costs also include tax deductions, which are not presented in this table, since their amount is not fixed, but depends on the volume of revenue.
Table 7. Fixed costs
Amount in months, rub.
Thus, fixed monthly expenses of 48, 100 rubles were determined.
A detailed financial plan is given in Appendix 1.
8. EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY
The investment attractiveness of this project can be judged on the basis of simple and integrated performance indicators. The change in the value of money over time is taken into account using the cash flow discounting method.
The project payback period for initial investments of 1, 600, 000 rubles is 17-18 months. The net monthly profit of the project upon reaching the planned sales volumes will be 104, 738 rubles. It is planned to reach the planned sales volume for the fourth month of work. The return on sales in the first year of operation will be 17.8%.
The net present value is positive and equal to 1, 600, 000 rubles, which allows us to talk about the investment attractiveness of the project. The ROI is 6.4%, the internal rate of return exceeds the discount rate and is 5.89.
All these indicators testify to the effectiveness and investment attractiveness of the project.
9. RISKS AND WARRANTIES
To assess the risk component of the project, it is necessary to analyze the external and internal factors. External factors include threats related to the economic situation in the country and markets. To internal - the effectiveness of managing the organization.
Among the internal risks are:
product quality that does not meet the stated requirements and market requirements: constant monitoring of quality and identification of deviations (non-compliance with the technology or poor-quality seedlings) is required.
errors in the estimation of sales volumes, which can lead to the disposal of products that belong to the category of perishable goods. This can be avoided by creating a well-established sales system.
errors in the process of growing products on which product quality and yield depend. Permanent monitoring, high-quality work of the technologist will reduce the risk.
External factors include:
the appearance of direct competitors on the market is eliminated by forming a base of loyal customers in the shortest possible time, holding PR events;
Seedling prices increase - is decided by the margin margin of the enterprise. Due to the systematic nature of the problem is not a critical factor.
the presence of a variety of pests that can not only spoil, but also completely destroy the crop. This can be avoided if continuous pest protection is provided.
climatic conditions that complicate the process of growing products and incur additional costs (in the case of a cold winter - for insulation of the premises, in the case of an arid, hot summer - for watering). This risk is the most specific for this type of business and is almost not subject to management. The only thing that an entrepreneur should do is to have a supply of funds in order to timely respond to the problem and eliminate it.
- прекращение сотрудничества, влекущее за собой финансовые потери (снижение прибыли, рост расходов на поиск новых партнеров и т.д.) Возникновение этой проблемы может произойти по причине ненадлежащего качества продукции, нарушение поставок, появлением конкурента, готового предложить более выгодные условия. Так или иначе, предприниматель всегда должен учитывать этот риск и создавать такие условия сотрудничества, которые были бы выгодны обеим сторонам.Evgenia Yurkina
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