In recent years, the market for seeds of vegetable crops and flowers has grown immeasurably and is updated annually by both domestic and foreign products.
The development of the industry in Russia, experts say, is hindered by a high share of imports: Western companies are increasingly taking the market from Russian manufacturers. The reason is that domestic seeds do not always withstand competition with imported ones. Russian companies are trying to develop production, but they do not have enough money.
The main buyers of vegetable seeds are farmers, gardeners and gardeners. In Russia, suburban areas have 30 million families. According to experts, in 2004 the Russian market for packaged seeds amounted to $ 2 million. In 2005 and 2006. about the same year was sold.
In Russia, less and less vegetables are planted: summer residents prefer flowers to them, which today take the market from vegetable seeds. If in 2005 the ratio of flower and vegetable seeds was approximately 50% to 50%, then in 2006 it was already 40% to 60%. Due to weather conditions, Russia is not intended for growing tomatoes and eggplant, so they try to plant flowers better on the site. People are engaged in plants for the soul, believing that for the body they can afford to go to the market and buy there brought from other countries or regions.
Nevertheless, more and more new players enter the Russian market of seeds of vegetable and flower crops every year. These are mainly small companies that already occupy 50% of the market: packers who prefer to take seeds by weight, put them in packages and sell them. The main players that occupy more than 50% of the market: NK corporation, Search agricultural company, Russian Seeds, Aelita, Zedek, Gavrish, Semko, Lily holding companies - are located in Moscow; wholesale companies popular in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region are St. Petersburg seeds (more than 500 types of flower crops, more than 800 types of vegetable seeds, more than 30 types of herbs and grass mixtures, and in particular, the new Spilantes Peak-a-bu from series "Fantastic foliage"), PE Zhuravleva O.E. (2500 items), "Russian Garden" (more than 2000 items, including such new series as "Samrost", "Northern Vegetables", "Russian Size"), "Sluras" (about 5 thousand items), etc.
A sharp increase in imports is the main problem for Russian companies. It already accounts for 75% of the market, with foreigners dumping. The reason is that Russia cannot grow high-quality seeds due to a lack of development: in the last decades, no investments were made in the industry. As a result, seeds are imported from Holland, France, Germany, Great Britain and Denmark, where tens of millions of dollars are ready to spend tens of millions of dollars to breed each variety. As a result, it turns out that Russian wholesalers outbid these seeds, so the price is higher for domestic companies.
The world's largest exporter of vegetable seeds is the United States. Holland is in second place in terms of imports. An increasing part of the Dutch vegetable seeds is grown in other countries, but the completion, sorting and packaging is carried out in most cases in the Netherlands. This country exports vegetable seeds worth more than $ 575 ml. Turkey annually imports seeds worth more than $ 40 million.
To reduce the cost of production, Russian companies are trying to develop their own production, but its share is still small, since Russian companies do not have enough funds to develop competitive production. Assistance is expected only from the state, but little funds are allocated in the budget - 50-70% of what is required.
Currently engaged in seed production, for example, Agrofirma Allen LLC. She grows seeds in 4 countries independently and imports the missing assortment from Germany, France and Poland. In 2006, the area of seed crops exceeded 250 hectares. Here, experts produce both their varieties and hybrids included in the State Register, as well as the most popular varieties of domestic selection, which form the basis of commodity production of vegetable products. This became possible due to the closest cooperation with the leading breeding centers of the country: VNIISSOK, VIR, TSHA, a number of experimental stations. For the production of high-quality seeds for both the professional and amateur segments of the market, Agrofirm Allen has everything you need: seed extraction and seed cleaning equipment, filling equipment, its own slide library for 3, 500 slides, a certified approbator of seed crops, shops, warehouses.
In the spring, during the period of active purchase of seeds of vegetable and flower crops, various channels for their acquisition appear in the wholesale and retail network.
The widest of them is specialized stores. Seeds in these stores, as a rule, have certificates of quality, and at the request of customers here are required to issue copies of them. This is the document according to which the gardener can make a claim in case of low-quality seeds.
Virtually all the major seed companies in the world are represented on the Russian seed market, which report a rapid increase in sales of quality seeds. Most companies try to offer a wide range of vegetable crops, but as a rule, individual, the most popular product groups are being marketed. Most companies focus on seed sales for professional producers and vegetable growers. The market for seeds of vegetables, flowers and other crops in the retail trade of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region is represented by a wide variety of firms. The assortment of seeds, bright and beautiful packaging with information about the variety and agricultural technology of cultivation are able to meet the demand of the most demanding customer.
According to agricultural technology experts, farmers buy about 40% of vegetable seeds directly from importing companies, and another 60% from regional representatives, that is, dealers and sub-dealers. It’s hard to say which way is better, because it all depends on the specific conditions of cooperation that the company offers.
Experience shows that companies that offer, in addition to seeds, also detailed technologies for growing these crops in the agro-climatic conditions of the region with the possibility of constant contact with a qualified agronomist during the growing season achieve the greatest success. Holding demonstration fields gives a very good result, and for seed companies that are confident in the quality of their seeds, it is ideal to conduct demonstration fields, where competitor seeds are also presented. In most cases, seeds are bought by professional producers, among which the largest volumes are needed by farmers, private farms, private producers and gardeners.
The process of buying seeds depends on:
- assortment of seeds;
- the service that this dealer offers;
- his authority in the region and the level of trust.
The main factors in the sale of seeds, experts believe:
- quality, availability, assortment;
- the degree of "untwisted" product (advertising support);
- beautiful packaging;
- information support (maximum provision of sellers of all levels from the importer to the village with information about this variety).
Farmers buy mainly hybrids of vegetable crops, which have established themselves from the very beginning and are standards and standards. The main factors influencing the decision to purchase a hybrid or variety are:
- Gained own experience about this hybrid;
- the experience gained by a good friend of the farmer, and a good result;
- the presence and use of a particular hybrid by a reputable farmer in this region;
- strong and massive advertising of this hybrid;
- publication and dissemination of information on the tangible benefits of a particular
Hybrid over competitor; - when choosing from two hybrids of the same class, farmers choose a cheaper and more popular one;
- the conviction of the farmer by the seller, who is directly in direct contact with the buyer; - the authority of the company in the market.
The quality of the seed material is a topical issue not only for summer residents, but also for all agriculture. After all, both yield and profitability of seed breeders, suppliers of elite seeds, depend on this. So, such products have traditionally been given special attention at the state level - experts have developed stringent requirements that regulate all stages of the production process, which formed the basis of various standards. Work on the regulatory framework is ongoing.
Since 2005, GOST (national standard of the Russian Federation) 52171-2003 "Seeds of vegetables, melons, fodder root crops and fodder cabbage. Varietal and sowing qualities. General technical conditions", developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection and Seed Production of Vegetables, has been in force in Russia.
This document regulates the principles of the market launch of vegetable and melon seeds and is harmonized with other standards in force in this area. Thus, the document guarantees certain product properties.
Of course, GOST is necessary primarily for producers - seed farms, breeding stations, etc. But it is of importance to any steam trader and consumer. If a gardener, heading to the store for a certain variety of cucumbers, which last summer so pleased him with a good harvest, then, of course, he will expect the same result from a new package of seeds. In order for these expectations to be met, the product must have the same properties: germination, viability, purity of the variety, etc. The stability of the properties of this product guarantees GOST, in accordance with which it is produced.
Particular attention in accordance with the requirements of the federal law "On Technical Regulation" is given to safety requirements for the health and environmental friendliness of products. Seeds in which pests, pathogens of plants, weeds having quarantine significance for the Russian Federation, as well as live pests and their larvae that damage seeds are found, are not allowed to be sown.
If the seeds have been treated with chemical or biological preparations, then, according to GOST, they must have the appropriate inscriptions and accompanying documents containing information about possible negative effects on human health and the environment.
According to GOST, the seeds of vegetable and melons, fodder root crops and fodder cabbage are divided into three categories (or reproduction steps): original, elite and reproduction seeds. According to the federal law "On Seed Production", the original seeds are produced by the originator of the variety or an authorized person, elite seeds are obtained as a result of reproduction of the original seeds, and reproduction seeds are generations following the elite. In this case, the first generation hybrid seeds are reproductive seeds.
For sowing, the seeds of vegetable and melons, fodder root crops and fodder cabbage of varieties and hybrids are included in the State Register of Selection Achievements Allowed for Use.
According to varietal frequency, seeds are divided into three categories in accordance with the requirements of the standard. Elite seeds and reproductive seeds that are used for seed production, must be in accordance with varietal purity in accordance with the requirements of the first category.
The seeds of greenhouse varieties and hybrids of cucumber, sweet pepper and tomato are divided into two categories according to varietal purity and content of hybrid seeds.
It should be noted that the requirements for varietal purity are set stringent even for the second and third categories: for example, for the third category of rhubarb - 85 percent, for beans - 95 percent, and for sugar and peeling varieties of peas with cereal seeds - 97 percent.
The content of varieties and harsh hybrids in the impurity is also established as the total impurity in the third category - it should be no more than 5% for lettuce, 2% for beets, etc.
The name of the crop should indicate the name of the crop, the name of the variety or hybrid, the batch number, the weight or number of seeds, the name and number of the document certifying the varietal and sowing qualities of the seeds, the designation of this standard, the expiration date, the name of the company and its address If the packaging does not provided all the information required by GOST, the contents may not meet the high requirements for product quality.
Based on materials from the website Wholesaler business Market
* The article is more than 8 years old. May contain outdated data