**It is known that the world market for sunflower oil today is about 10 million tons, and its stable and fairly rapid growth is observed.**

The volume of the Russian market is about 2-2.2 million tons, with an increase of about 3% per year, or in value terms, about 82 billion rubles. It is easy to guess that far from the entire volume of sunflower oil is produced by corporations and other large producers: about 40-45% of the oil is produced by medium and even small producers, right down to farms.

This is explained simply: the cost of entering the market is low, the volume of production depends only on how much raw material a newly opened enterprise can afford to process, and the sales market is practically unlimited: even if there are no regional buyers for the produced volume of oil, it is simply sent for border (mainly to Turkey and Europe), where they buy it very willingly. Although such cases are more an exception than a rule: sunflower oil, besides cooking itself, is used in many other sectors of the economy, for example, in canning, soap making, the paint and varnish industry (it is known that it is made of varnish) and even in cosmetic and medical industry, where it acts as the basis or component of various creams and ointments. So it is not difficult to find a buyer for sunflower oil.

In addition, the production of sunflower oil is non-waste. The fact is that in the process of obtaining it from the sunflower seeds, accompanying materials are also formed - sunflower husk (husk, seed shells), separated in the process of collapse when preparing them for oil extraction, refers to recyclable waste - it is sold to brick factories and production enterprises pellets, as well as some other specific needs; by-products include cake and meal - very liquid feed products that require some processing (pressing into briquettes, etc.) before sale.

Of course, related materials are sold without reducing the cost of the actual oil; Moreover, in accounting, the costs of sale, transportation costs for the shipment of by-products and production wastes are directly related to the cost of sold sunflower oil, which helps to optimize the tax base of the enterprise.

## Technology and equipment for the production of sunflower oil

As you know, sunflower oil is divided into two global groups - refined and unrefined oils. Their difference is in the degree of purification. Refined oil is refined technologically, usually by sedimentation, centrifugation, filtration, sulfate and alkaline refining, hydration, bleaching, deodorization and freezing in any combination of these methods. Unrefined oil is cleaned exclusively by mechanical filtration.

The specifics of modern production of sunflower oil is such that at the same oil extraction plant it is possible to produce almost any of the 7 existing (that is, those listed in the corresponding standard - GOST R 52465-2005) species.

In general, the technology for the production of sunflower oil is as follows. At the first stage, sunflower seeds are separated from impurities that differ in size and aerodynamic properties, as well as metallic impurities with magnetic properties.

This happens in special separators, the cost of which is 42-45 thousand rubles. (1360-1460 dollars) per unit - the capacity of one separator is about 1 ton (1000 kg) of raw materials per hour. At the second stage of cleaning, sunflower seeds are separated from husks in special queen-veined machines.

The process is called collapse, the equipment for its production will cost 77 thousand rubles. (about $ 3, 000) per unit - one machine processes, like a separator, 1000 kg of raw materials per hour, so the number of crushing machines and separators is the same, and their total capacity should correspond to the power of the oil extraction line as a whole: usually, several lines serve simultaneously ligaments “separator - rush-and-mortar machine”, fed from a single hopper (it is called “hopper”) with the help of several transport (so-called “screw conveyor”) lines.

After processing on a separator and in a rush-winding machine, the peeled sunflower seeds are fed to a roller mill designed for grinding seed kernels. The actual power of the roller mill is the input (i.e., raw) power of the line as a whole.

The cost of such machines varies greatly depending on the power, and listing them all does not make sense. For the purposes of this article, we can name the cost of units comparable in terms of power in order to give readers an idea of the order of prices for them.

So, a roller mill with an input capacity of 800 kg per hour (i.e., comparable to a separator and a crushing machine with a capacity of 1000 kg - the output of useful substances from them, i.e. sunflower kernels, in other words, the output power will be approximately 0, 8 tons) will cost about 425 thousand rubles. or $ 13, 800; a machine with an input capacity of about 4200 kg per hour, that is, comparable to 5-6 bundles of "separator - rush-and-winder machine" costs about 1120 thousand rubles, or 36, 450 dollars.

Factories equipped with machine tools of the second type fall into the category of “medium” enterprises - after all, even by simply multiplying productivity by working time, it is not difficult to find out their “input” capacity - 40-48 tons per day (under the condition of single-shift operation, although the specifics of production are such that the harvest season it can also be three-shift, i.e. round-the-clock), and this is a harvest from 16-19 hectares.

Sunflower seeds ground by means of rollers (also called “peppermint”) are transported to a roasting pan. Braziers are of two types - fire and steam. The difference, as you might guess, is in the difference in the types of processing of ground seeds.

Fire braziers, in fact, are large pans, or more precisely, boilers; heating and frying in them is done using gas burners. Steam treat the mint with steam, obtained, as a rule, again by heating water with the energy of a burning gas.

The first type of roasting pan is much cheaper than the second - they cost about 83 thousand rubles, or slightly less than $ 3, 000, but their productivity is 300-350 kg of peppermint per cycle, that is, 2-3 roasting panes will have to be used to load the line at full capacity.

A steam roaster with a capacity of 800 kg per hour (that is, corresponding to the power of the “single” line as a whole) will cost about 350 thousand rubles. or 11.5 thousand dollars. In addition, there are also steam roasters not for frying, but only for heat treatment of seeds - this technology allows you to save a little time and get the so-called cold pressed oil - without the specific smell of fried sunflower seeds.

A brazier of this type will cost about 440 thousand rubles, or a little more than 14 thousand dollars. By performance, it will also correspond to a “single” line, i.e. handle 1000 kg of broom per hour.

In principle, there is a technology of cold pressing without the use of expensive heating equipment. However, without heating, the oil extraction is significantly reduced - in this case, the investment will pay off quite quickly, given the volume of production.

The next unit, a screw press, is designed to actually squeeze out oil from the sunflower seed kernels that have passed or have not passed the thermal treatment (this mass is called “pulp”).

The productivity of the squeezing machines of the "middle" class, that is, intended for small and medium-sized enterprises, is 15-25 tons per day, their cost is 650-860 thousand rubles, or 21.1-28 thousand dollars, respectively.

The oil from the press is cooled and settles, and then passes through a special filter designed for primary cleaning from mechanical impurities. The cost of such a filter is about 95 thousand rubles. or 3070 dollars.

In principle, the oil obtained does not need further purification, however, at some enterprises the use of other filters is also practiced.

The productivity of one filter of this type is 160 kg of oil per hour, taking into account the average oil content of sunflower - from 33 to 57%, i.e. from 1 ton of peppermint or pulp, 330-570 is obtained (and taking into account the remaining in the cake from 8-9 to 11-14% of the oil on average - 260-270 kg of oil), 2-3 pieces are usually used.

The resulting oil is called "raw" - the cake remaining after pressing can be sold as valuable agricultural raw materials, and can be subjected to additional extraction.

The second method for producing sunflower oil is called extraction. In contrast to the above-described press method, the oil yield increases up to 2% of the remaining cash in sunflower seeds.

Usually at modern enterprises both methods are used - as a rule, the press cake press immediately goes to the extractor - a special machine where the residual oil is dissolved. Various specific substances are used as solvents - extraction gasoline, hexane, acetone, dichloroethane, etc.

After the second extraction, a fat-free (up to 2-5% oil content) material is used that is used as feed for farm animals - meal, and a solution of oil in a solvent (the so-called miscella). Miscella oil is obtained by refining, which can be produced by various methods. The cost of appropriate equipment is from about 520 thousand rubles. or $ 16, 770 at a productivity of 500 kg of oil per hour.

Ready-made sunflower oil is poured into various containers: from iron barrels with a volume of 200 liters to plastic bottles from 0.5 to 5 liters. Of course, oil in barrels is much less valued than bottled, so (if, of course, the plant produces not technical but edible oil), you should also purchase the appropriate equipment: sets of equipment for filling sunflower oil into plastic bottles (with a capacity of 3600 liters per 8-hour shift) will cost about 405 thousand rubles. or a little over 13 thousand dollars.

### Requirements for personnel and premises in the production of sunflower oil

A big minus of the production of sunflower oil is the requirement of a sufficiently large production and storage facilities. The total area of production workshops for a plant with a capacity of 50 tons of sunflower seeds per shift is about 2000 square meters. m. In general, the presence of approximately 40 square meters is considered a statistical norm. m per tonne of raw materials processed per shift. That is, if the plant’s capacity is 10 tons, then 400 square meters will be needed for production facilities. m, and if 25, then 1000.

But the warehouse should be even larger - after all, the norm of production stocks is 1-1.5 months, and the specificity of storing sunflower seeds is such that it is not allowed to ram it too thick. Total warehouse space on average is twice as large as production, and in this case it is not less than 4000 sq.m.

In addition, the storage of oilcake or meal requires half the warehouse than for raw materials, and actually for the finished product - a warehouse approximately equal to 3/4 of the production room. Total we get warehouse space for another 2000 + 1500, and in total - 3500 sq. M. m

The husk can be stored in bulk in the street under a weightless or even open sky, if climatic conditions allow, but in order to prevent it from obstructing, for example, access to cars, but to be available for loading and unloading for sale, it should allocate a separate area of about 10- 15 acres.

Apparently, it is rather difficult to find the appropriate premises, however, new technologies for the construction of frame structures such as hangars can solve problems, at least storage.

But with the staff a little easier: out of about 50 shift workers, special education and training (in this case, in the specialties 260100 "Food Technology", 260400 "Technology of Fats", 260401 "Technology of fats, essential oils and perfumes and cosmetics", 260402 “Technology of fats and fat substitutes”, 260600 “Food engineering”, 260601 “Machines and equipment for food production” and 260602 “Food engineering of small enterprises” in accordance with OKSO) should have only 8-10 people - technologists and craftsmen.

The rest of the employees can be recruited on the principle of integrity and the absence of bad habits - production is considered fire hazard. The total salary fund, taking into account the unified social tax, will be no more than 700-750 thousand rubles.

### Profitability and payback of sunflower oil production

The profitability of the production of sunflower oil is not so easy to calculate: it strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock (oil content, humidity), the technology used (cold pressing, extraction, etc.) and seasonality. The peak of production and, as a result, the supply of sunflower oil is October-December. And the peak of demand - the end of summer - the beginning of autumn.

However, the overall numbers are as follows. An average oil extraction plant processes 50 tons of sunflower seeds per day. The average oil content of sunflower (according to different quality of raw materials and varieties) is about 45%, and up to 5% is associated products - meal and technological losses, and about 20% of the weight of the seeds is husk - shell.

So, from 50 tons of sunflower seeds, 40 tons of kernels will turn out, and of them, in the best case, 16 tons of oil plus 24 tons of meal and 10 tons of husk.

16 tons of oil is 17.3-17.4 thousand liters of oil. For ease of calculation, all oil will be considered refined deodorized. Considering the selling wholesale price of oil at 35 rubles. per liter, we get a gross profit of 605-609, rounded - 600 thousand rubles. It is only with butter. Sunflower husk at a price of about 900 rubles. per ton will bring another 90 thousand rubles, and meal (at the lowest price - 1.5 thousand rubles per ton) - plus 36 thousand rubles. Total gross income is obtained at least 725 thousand rubles. We will build on it.

The cost of a ton of oilseed sunflower of normal quality is about 12 thousand rubles, and therefore, 600 thousand rubles will be required for a working shift of raw materials. Thus, net profit (excluding associated costs) is 125 thousand rubles, and profitability is about 20%.

Profit for the month (counting 24 working days on a 1-shift scheme) will be equal to 3 million rubles, and minus the wage fund and taxes, as well as expenses for utility bills - about 1.8-2 million rubles.

*Pavel Biryukov*

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