Own agricultural business: growing cruciferous

* The calculations use the average data for the World

This article will discuss the features of growing several Pancake week and spice-flavor crops. They are all united by belonging to the same family of cruciferous or Cruciferӕ, which are also called Cabbage or Brassicáceӕ. At first glance, the economic value of these plants does not seem important, but they find their application in many areas of human activity: from simple ingestion to the manufacture of biofuels. Many representatives of this family are successfully grown in Russia, so you can start your own agricultural business based on the cultivation of these cultivated plants.

If the size of the site where the work will be carried out exceeds one hectare, such activity is subject to mandatory registration. Otherwise, it is possible to maintain a personal subsidiary farm that is not taxed and does not imply the provision of reports to the appropriate authorities. However, large areas are needed for the industrial cultivation of Pancake week and spice crops, therefore, without breaking the law, it will be possible to implement them after registering the form of a business entity. A peasant-farm economy, abbreviated as peasant farm, is best suited. In general, you can register as an individual entrepreneur and as a legal entity. Depending on which plants will be grown, the economic activity code is selected. For Pancake week crops this is (OKPD 2) 08/18/2019 Seeds of flax, mustard, rape, rape, rape, sesame, sunflower and seeds of other oilseeds, not included in other groups, for spices - (OKPD 2) 01.28 Spices and plants used in perfumes and pharmacy. You can resolve legal issues within a month and spend about 20 thousand rubles on it.

When all bureaucratic issues have been resolved, you can begin to search for a suitable site. To prepare both oil and spices, a huge number of plants is required, therefore, the site should be large. Some farmers grow such plants just to normalize crop rotation, without receiving serious profit from the sale of the plants themselves, but it is quite possible to occupy large areas for sowing and fully engage in the business of growing these crops; for this you need to find about 50 hectares of land. The biggest expenses per year are 175 thousand rubles, since in the southern regions of the country chernozem lands are leased for quite impressive amounts. On average, the cost of a hectare of land is about 2 thousand rubles, while the land will be fertile and suitable for growing plants.

It is advisable to search for land with the help of professional agronomists who can determine the content of the necessary minerals and organic substances in the soil composition. Sometimes it happens that they try to sell or rent an exhausted site, because even when renting, you often have to pay the entire amount for a year in advance. For each plant, the soil is selected individually depending on the species and even the variety, but the main thing is that other representatives of cruciferous plants should not be the predecessors of the planted plants. Cabbage has common pests and common diseases, so the constant use of land for planting closely related plants increases the likelihood of their occurrence, and also depletes the soil.

In order to successfully deal with all types of plants, you will need specialized equipment. First of all, you need a tractor, a plow and a trailer for transporting a large number of plants - that is, a crop. A seed drill may be needed if very large areas for planting are planned. It’s not worth talking about gardening equipment at all - any farmer always has one. Of course, large areas are treated with pesticides, which eliminates the need for manual weeding, but still manual inventory is necessary in constant care. You also need to take care of the harvest, and you will either have to buy special equipment (but this is a big waste, and the car will pay off not earlier than in a few years), or rent it, or hire a person with equipment, offering him an hourly wage for his work .

In addition to technology, you need to take care of a large hangar, in which you can store several hundred tons of products, because some plants give a large crop. All this should be located close to the field to reduce transportation costs. Optimally, when the whole economy is combined, and there are no scattered fields.

Despite global automation, sometimes you will have to work with your hands, and here your strength may not be enough. In this case, you can hire people from the nearest settlements, in villages and villages no one will require a lot of money for their help. Since peasant-farm farming involves a certain association of persons (although one person can be its founder), the farmer probably has either family or business partners, with common efforts with which you can independently manage the farm without involving outside people. All of the above is suitable not only for cruciferous, but for most crops in general, differences are observed in the care and cultivation.

Mustard. This culture has gained fame as a spice; it has long been used in Russia as a seasoning in the preparation and / or consumption of food. But mustard is not only a spice, but also a source of oil, as well as a medicinal plant, which is often used in pharmacy. With all this, mustard acts as an excellent siderate, enriching the soil with nitrogen compounds.

There are several species that can be cultivated in this country, and depending on the purpose of the plant, certain varieties are grown. The most common type is white mustard, it is English mustard, it is also Sinápis álba. First of all, it is valued precisely as a Pancake week crop, but it finds its application as a medicinal plant. Sometimes seasoning is also made of it, but the plant itself is poisonous. But directly in Russia, Sarepta mustard, also called Sarepta cabbage, also known as Brássica júncea, is very widespread, because in the Russian climate it is it that gives a significant amount of oil. There are many other species, but they are not as popular as these two.

Mustard can be sown even in early spring, because the plant is able to survive a short-term drop in temperature to -9 ° C. Grain and leguminous crops are good predecessors, cruciferous, sunflower and millet are bad. The vegetation period of this plant rarely exceeds three months, therefore, a plant sown in March-April can be harvested in the summer, thus freeing up the field for subsequent plants. Before winter crops there will be time to put the land in order. Mustard itself has only spring varieties.

It grows on almost any kind of soil, except for sandy ones, the plant is relatively unpretentious, as it is able to independently absorb phosphorus and potassium. But she will have a lot of nitrogen, twice as much nitrogen fertilizer as phosphorus or potash fertilizer is applied under mustard. As for organic fertilizers, it is best to apply them in advance, possibly even under the precursor plant. Mustard is harvested by a combine.

It is important to note that mustard is a good honey plant, which is why it is used in a multidisciplinary farm to also increase the productivity of honey bees. So, from one hectare you can collect up to 40 kilograms of mustard honey, which is not very suitable as a winter supply for the bees themselves, but is consumed with pleasure by man.

This plant has a very high yield. So, for one hectare, only 10 kilograms of seeds will be required (for comparison, this indicator is several times higher for cereals), while the seed fund costs 40 rubles per kilogram. Thus, one hectare needs 400 rubles, for 50 hectares - 20 thousand rubles. Mustard is so prolific that from one hectare you can collect up to 15 tons of green mass of plants. However, only seeds are of interest, the content of which in the plant is only about 10%. That is, the yield of seeds directly is 1.5 tons per hectare. From 50 hectares, this figure will be 75 tons, and if all this crop is sold at the same price at which seeds were purchased, then you can get 3 million rubles. Of course, these calculations are conducted on the condition that nature was supportive of the farmer, but many agronomists have always noted the high profitability of growing this crop.

With the sale of mustard should also not be a problem due to the large number of potential consumers. To ensure the food industry, it is desirable to grow a large number of different types and varieties, because mustard as a seasoning has many varieties for which different source material is needed (for example, the spicy mustard, which is loved in Russia, is obtained from Sarepta, but not from white, used in Europe, because its inhabitants do not like hot mustard).

Rape. It is not a very famous plant, but has great potential for growing it. It is an almost exclusively Pancake week crop, the product of which is used in many industries. Rapeseed oil is edible, but it is also used as a technical component of many materials and even as the basis of biofuel. Rapeseed was not of great economic importance just before the invention of biodiesel, and it is this type of fuel, based on rapeseed oil, that is especially often used in Europe. In connection with the current market for petroleum products and fuels in particular, one can count on the fact that rapeseed oil will become very popular in the near future.

The most commonly used species is Brássica nápus, it is distinguished by the best indicators for the isolation of oily liquid from the seed. Rapeseed, being a relatively close relative of mustard (it is often used with rapeseed in rape breeding), is also often used as a siderat and is also a good honey plant. Growing rapeseed near an apiary increases the amount of honey per bee colony. The green parts of the plant can become a good organic fertilizer, which in its indicators surpasses even manure.

Rapeseed can be preceded by the same plants as for mustard, but potato grows best after rape. But on this, the similarities of mustard and rapeseed gradually come to naught. So, rapeseed can be both spring and winter crops, there are special varieties that are used in a particular region and are bred specifically for local climatic conditions.

The soil for rape must be clayey or loamy; chernozem is also suitable. Heavy clay or sandy soil is poorly suitable for growing this plant. In order to maximize the rape yield, sowing rates are determined depending on the region and variety, but the average rate is 15 kilograms of seeds per hectare. Thus, 750 kilograms of seed stock is needed. To purchase it, you will need almost 25 thousand rubles at the rate of 30-35 rubles per kilogram. It should be noted that winter rape is much more expensive than spring rape, and in Russia about 5 times more spring rape is cultivated than winter rape.

The yield of the plant is slightly lower than that of mustard, and is about 4 tons per hectare, although in some farms it reached 7 tons. In this country, yield is rarely so good and often drops to around 1.5 tons per hectare. It is important to note that rapeseed uses both seeds and the rest of the plant. From 50 hectares you can collect 75 tons of plants, the average cost of one ton will be about 14 thousand rubles. The final income is 980 thousand rubles, while if you fully engage in growing rapeseed with a large number of seeds, then a ton of them can be sold for 30-35 thousand rubles. Despite somewhat less attractive indicators, rapeseed on the market can be much more demanded than mustard, which makes it possible to quickly and in large quantities to sell their products.

Horseradish . A well-known plant from which they make a very popular seasoning for Russian dishes. Horseradish is generally a sacred concept for a Russian person. In Latin, the name of the cultivated species sounds like Armorácia rusticána. This plant is unpretentious and germinating on loamy and loamy soils. Horseradish is hardy, it is planted in early spring and autumn. An interesting feature of this plant is that its seeds are very rarely planted, much more often young roots are used for horseradish seedlings, which grow and give life to new plants: these are the so-called cuttings.

Horseradish prefers relatively moist places. Phosphorus and potassium are introduced in approximately equal amounts, while nitrogen can affect the strong growth and branching of the roots. Most often, this leads to the formation of thin and uninteresting roots as a food material. This plant due to its propagation by rhizomes is perennial, and can be in one place for up to 10 years. Cuttings for planting cost about 20 rubles per kilogram, about five tons of planting material are needed per hectare. Thus, the purchase price of plants will be 5 million rubles for a plot of 50 hectares.

Horseradish is appreciated not only for its roots, but also for sheets used in medicine and folk cooking. But the yield of the roots alone is about 10 tons per hectare, that is, 500 tons from the whole plot. The cost of horseradish for sale is slightly higher than for landing, and is about 30 rubles per kilogram. That is, the site can lead up to 15 million rubles, but it must be borne in mind that this amount can only be received gradually while the plant is growing.

Unpretentious horseradish becomes a very profitable investment, it can be allocated a special (maybe not even a big) site on which it can be periodically collected with good additional income. It should be noted that horseradish harvesting is somewhat more difficult than other plants, since it needs to remove not only the green parts, but also a particularly valuable root. Recently, another representative of the cruciferous family is gaining ground, used as a spicy culture and often compared with horseradish - eutrem, or wasabi. The species Eutrema japonicum is growing, which theoretically can be a good source of income due to the growing number of restaurants oriented to Japanese and Asian cuisines. However, this extremely hygrophilous plant is practically not adapted to survive in the harsh climate of this country.

Cruciferous plants are a very important family of not only food, but also medicinal, Pancake week and spice-taste plants. This family includes many other useful plants, the most important of which is cabbage. Also an indispensable culture is turnip, which is also a representative of this family. But these plants do not belong to Pancake week or to spicy crops, while the analysis of the features of their cultivation deserves a separate article.

Matthias Laudanum

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08/18/2019

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