Among all the fruit trees, the genus Prúnus, with the Russian name Plum, occupies a special place. This species belongs to many species of fruit trees, and in addition to plums, this includes cherry, cherry plum, apricot and even almonds, in which the seed core is not eaten. The cultivation of all these plants is considered in the relevant articles, in the same plants such as apricot and peach will be examined in more detail. Both of these species are cultures that are grown mainly in the south, but in Russia in some regions they are engaged in their cultivation. These cultures give demanded and tasty fruits that are enjoyed by a large number of people. Having your own apricot orchard is quite an interesting and profitable business.
First you need to register as a business entity. In the case when farming is supposed, the state does not consider small farmers as entrepreneurs, even if they are selling their products. It is believed that they maintain a personal subsidiary plots (LPH) for their own needs, and sell surpluses. But if the size of the cultivated area exceeds one hectare, then its activity is already necessary to register.
You can get a legal entity, but it is advisable if you plan to open a large agro-industrial complex, the founders of which are a large number of people. Otherwise, you can register a peasant farm (analogue to an individual entrepreneur), taxes on income of which will amount to only 6%. This is a single agricultural tax (UTN). At the same time, the peasant farm is also considered an association of several persons (although it can be registered by one founder); for example, a farmer's family may be legally co-founders of a peasant farm. This form was specially developed for farmers, and therefore is preferred in the case of conducting their agricultural business.
After solving bureaucratic issues, we can proceed to the search for space. Both apricot and peach trees are very demanding on the soil, so you need to find non-clay and well-warmed land. These trees originally grew only in the south, therefore in Russia they feel good only in the south-west; in other regions, it is necessary to specially select varieties and carefully select a site for laying a garden.
Since, as a rule, those farmers who own land have their own gardens, they have to check whether this or that plant can grow on existing soil. If there is a desire at all costs to engage in their garden, then it is better to find other sites than to cultivate where the crop still will not. However, today there are already enough varieties that have been successfully cultivated for many years in the central part of Russia, in the south-west apricot and peach generally feel “at home”. In this matter, you need to immediately find out the composition of the soil on which tree planting is planned, and already select a variety for its indicators.
But in the northern regions it is certain that it will not be possible to engage in these crops, yet the trees, if they survive, will require too much care, and the yield will be minimal. In the event that there is no own land, then you can try to find land that is leased for long-term lease. The cost of a hectare of land per year in the south-west of Russia can reach three and a half thousand rubles, in the middle lane - up to two thousand. This refers to agricultural land located at a relative distance from large settlements. You can also contact the municipal services with an offer to engage in agriculture on state land. Since the vast expanses of agricultural land are empty, it is likely that beginner farmers will be helped by providing areas for plant cultivation. For the garden, you can allocate about five hectares.
Like many other fruit trees, these crops begin to bear fruit only a few years after planting. There are varieties that begin to bear fruit in 2-3 years, but these varieties may not always be suitable for climatic conditions. Therefore, it is better to set up your garden in the event that a multi-profile economy is being conducted, otherwise the farmer will not have the means of subsistence for several years. Moreover, the trees need to be looked after, which also requires money. Any fruit tree garden is an investment that will start to generate income only after a few years. This scares some entrepreneurs who are accustomed to short-term profits and consider any investment only if they quickly return. In this case, this approach is not advisable. But if a garden is laid in a multi-field farm, then this will allow more efficient conduct of its activities in general, because then there will be at least fertilizers of organic origin under the trees.
Thus, it is worth doing your garden when there are already established sources of regular income. The garden will be another source, but much later.
Also, in a multidisciplinary farm, for sure, there is an appropriate technique for caring for plants. And this is not only garden tools, represented by shovels and rakes, but also a full-fledged equipment. In the case of apricot and peach, only transport equipment will be enough - that is, a small machine that can move around the garden with a trailer for stacking the last harvested fruit. Harvest is then transported to the storage place, but it is easier and quicker to collect it.
Since these plants ripen unevenly, you can do it yourself, the farmer can do this every day during the harvest, and his own family can help him. If you can’t cope, you can hire labor from the nearest settlements. These can be villages and villages, because in large cities suitable people cannot be found, and they will demand too much for their services. And the work of residents from the village will be of high quality, while the farmer will provide at least seasonal employment to the population of the villages, which only positively affects social life.
You will have to protect your garden not only from pathogens and harmful insects, but also from pest birds, who also love delicacy. Feathered birds can destroy the garden, especially eating around the tops of trees. This is not so true for regions where the number of birds is small, because then they will be more likely helpers, and not pests that destroy harmful insects. But if the birds have bred in huge quantities, then they will have to be disposed of in some way. Due to lack of food, they can, without fear of man, ruin the gardens. If you do not take into account several barbaric methods, then the birds can be driven away with special devices. So, instead of a gun, gas guns have been developed that simulate the sound of a shot and make the birds fly away at a considerable distance around in a panic. Flying up kites are similar to birds of prey (especially if they are still suitably colored), which also makes the birds panic.
Special ultrasonic repellers are used and are becoming more widespread, which generate permanent ultrasound at a frequency heard by birds, but not perceived by people. However, this sound can be heard by animals, and people may experience discomfort. Recently, technology improvements have made it possible to place ultrasonic repellers on top of trees and generate unpleasant ultrasound only in a certain radius at a certain height. There are also devices that are absolutely harmless to humans and farm animals - sound repellers. They reproduce the sounds of birds of prey, which completely expels unforgiven guests from the garden. And, of course, we must not forget about the classic methods of deterrence; a common scarecrow can be effective if it is a carcass of a (dead or simulated) bird. Seeing a dead relative, the birds leave the dangerous territory.
Apricot. Cultivated species - Prúnus armeniáca. It has many names that are common in the regions of Russia: from dried apricots to yellowfruit. Apricot loves a temperate climate, and all varieties that tolerate cold well were obtained by long selection. Breeding also led to the emergence of many new species, which are hybrids of apricot with cherry plum or plum. Apricot should not be planted on highly moist soils, this plant loves calm and well-lit places.
Like all other fruit trees, it is necessary to fertilize it only during fruiting, before doing this, carry out standard procedures for watering the plant and grooming. Varieties intended for central Russia tolerate fungal diseases well, unlike closely related plants - cherries and plums, which can be almost completely destroyed by some fungi, if you leave the tree to its fate.
Depending on the variety, apricot may begin to bear fruit in the second year, but we must remember that a young tree cannot provide the maximum possible yield. But some varieties begin to bear fruit only in the fourth year after planting, and this significantly affects the conduct of business. Previously, this plant was not even able to produce fruits annually, and the crop was only once every 2-3 years. Today, many varieties produce almost the same number of fruits from year to year. But experienced farmers say that it is best to have several varieties of this plant in the garden, then the overall yield increases. The annual harvest, as a rule, is realized, because this culture is part of the diet of many people, but here especially good sales of apricots will be on the market. Therefore, a significant part of their fruits can be left for sale at the nearest agricultural market, where they are sold at the highest possible price; but there is a risk of not selling too many fruits. Therefore, it is better to try to find retailers and try to sell the collected apricots to them.
In the shops of large cities, you can rarely find apricots (unlike peaches), so you may not succeed in this direction. There are still large resellers who can pick up very large batches of goods, but the price will be minimal. If some part of the crop remains unrealized, it is worth saving the fruits from the seeds and freezing them. For a long time, the ripped fruits will still not be preserved, and in frozen form they can be sold to many food enterprises that make stewed fruit, jelly and the like (the same enterprises may also be able to sell fresh fruits that go to jams, fillings and pastes).
In addition to fresh and frozen fruits, dried ones are also used. Dried apricots are not apricots, but their dried pitted halves. Dried apricot is used as a raw material for many sweets; therefore, it will not be surprising if suddenly dried and frozen fruits are sold much better, rather than fresh. But apricot seeds are also a useful product, which does not have to be disposed of if fruit processing is intended. Bones become the basis for the preparation of alcoholic beverages, they are squeezed oil and even eaten like almonds. Apricot seeds are also used in the cosmetic industry, as well as as medicines. Therefore, apricots will almost certainly be able to sell.
The cost of seedlings of this plant is 700 rubles; one hectare can accommodate more than four hundred plants (based on 24 m2 per tree). Even if we take into account only 400 plants, then we have to allocate 280 thousand rubles per hectare, or 1 million 400 thousand per five hectares. From one tree it is possible to collect an average of 50 kilograms of fruit, or 20 tons per hectare. Five produces 100 tons. The wholesale price of a kilogram of apricots is about 40 rubles, and as a result, if you sell the whole crop to wholesalers in the form of fresh fruits, you will get 4 million rubles of income. Thus, a successful harvest year will fully cover the costs of the initial opening of the business.
Peach. It is a culture that in Russia can be successfully grown only in the southwest. There are, of course, more frost-resistant varieties, but for industrial production they give too unstable and small crops to make serious profits.
Peach is also called Persian plum, the Latin name of the species is translated - Prúnus pérsica. Peach is a very close relative of almonds, their difference is precisely in the fruit; in peach, it is very juicy and tasty, in almonds, it is completely unsuitable for food. But peach bones are much less commonly eaten than almond seeds. Peaches are planted at a greater distance from each other than apricot trees, so only up to 300 trees can fit on one hectare. But the cost of seedlings is much lower - about 200 rubles per tree.
Varieties are also distinguished depending on the region, and the yield of a tree depends not least on this, but a peach is different in that if it does not produce a large number of fruits, the ones that appear appear to be larger than if there were a lot of them. That is, the total mass of fruits is preserved. But it is large peaches that are valued more, some people do not distinguish between the taste of peach and apricot, considering the first an enlarged version of the second.
In recent years, nectarines, which are distinguished from peaches by a smooth skin, have gained special popularity and special love. The situation at the moment is such that nectarines have strongly displaced peaches from the market. But in Russia there are varieties of nectarines that are grown even in the Volgograd region, and for this plant this is the far north. The sale of peaches is somewhat different from the sale of apricots; these fruits are most often interesting to consumers in the form of fresh fruits, although, of course, juices, nectars and other products of food enterprises are often made from them. Seeds as well as apricots are used in the preparation of alcohol and in the oil industry. Peach seed oil is used in cosmetics.
To get your peach garden, you need to buy one and a half thousand seedlings per five hectares. At a cost of 200 rubles, the purchase price will be 300 thousand rubles. This is due to the fact that peaches are engaged in a much smaller number of people than apricots. The yield of this plant also depends on the variety, but the average can be called 40 kilograms per tree per season. Then it turns out that from the whole garden in good years you can collect about 60 tons of peach trees. The cost of a kilogram of these fruits is about 60 rubles. But at the same time, the fruits of good varieties are sometimes even sold individually, which makes their sale a highly profitable business. It turns out that the income from the sale of peaches will be 3 million 600 thousand rubles, and although it is less than the income from the sale of peaches, it is much more profitable.Matthias Laudanum (c) www.clogicsecure.com - A portal to small business business plans and guides