Acrylic refers to polymers and polymeric materials based on derivatives of acrylic acid. In turn, acrylic acid (which is also known as propene or ethenocarboxylic acid) is the simplest representative of monobasic unsaturated carboxylic acids. It looks like a clear, colorless liquid with a sharp, but not very strong (compared, for example, with oil paint) odor, it is easily soluble in water, ethanol, chloroform and diethyl alcohol. Acrylic acid is relatively easily polymerized, as a result of which it is converted to polyacrylic acid. And when interacting with monomers, acrylic acid, in turn, forms copolymers. All these chemical properties of acrylic determine the excellent mechanical properties of this material.
Acrylic is not afraid, unlike other paints and varnishes, of relatively high temperatures, has a low specific gravity in combination with good strength and is resistant to ultraviolet radiation (that is, it does not fade in the sun). Acrylic is used to produce acrylic varnishes and paints. If in synthetic paints the main component is, in most cases, synthetic latexes, then in acrylic paint contains an aqueous "solution" of polymers. To be more precise, these are water-soluble dispersions of plastic, therefore, when dried, such a coating forms a resistant film with protective and decorative functions.
Acrylic paints began to be produced in 1950 in Mexico, after which paints, varnishes and enamels based on acrylic began to be produced both in the USA and in European countries. The main properties of acrylic paints and varnishes are the absence of a sharp unpleasant odor, quick drying and the formation of a durable coating. It should also be borne in mind that acrylic darkens when dried. Acrylic paints are used in painting work as a more convenient alternative to oil paints. They are applied with a brush, roller or spray. Such paints and varnishes are easily diluted with water and can be applied to the surface in a liquid and pasty state. They can be diluted with special diluents and water or thickened with thickeners. When dried, acrylic does not form cracks and delaminations, like oil paints. Yes, and his color scheme is much richer. It is for these reasons that artists often use acrylic paints.
Acrylic-based paints and varnishes can be applied to almost any non-greasy surface - wood, metal, glass, plastic, canvas, fabric, etc. They lay flat, have a slight sheen (although there are also matte varnishes without a sheen), do not require special fixers, hardeners and protective coatings. Fresh acrylic paint and varnish are easily washed off with water, and when dried, they form a durable film that can be washed off only with the help of special active solvents. Another important advantage of acrylic materials is their low retail cost.
Acrylic paints and varnishes are available in various packaging - from barrels, buckets, flasks, cans (for example, paints for interior work) to plastic jars and tubes (acrylic art paints). There are several types of paint based on acrylic, depending on the scope of their application and purpose: acrylic paints for walls and ceilings, acrylic facade paints, paints for fabrics, for wood, for glass, latex acrylic paints, car paints, spray paints, art paints, floor paints, metallic paints, pearlescent paints, paints for children's creativity, etc.
As we mentioned above, acrylic paints are synthetic materials created on the basis of acrylic acid or, more precisely, acrylic polymer emulsion. This emulsion acts as a binder between the pigment and water. It is very important to choose the right ratio of all components so that the resulting product has all the advantages that are inherent in acrylic paints and varnishes (breathability, low water absorption, good adhesion - adhesion to the painted surface). An experienced technologist can correctly select not only the type of pigment, but also the required amount, special stabilizers and coalescent substances. Exact observance of the technology and formulation of the production of paints allows you to create high-quality finishing materials with a long shelf life.
The technology for the production of paints is quite simple: in a special mixer, which is called a dissolver, all components of the future paint are mixed in a certain sequence and in a certain mode. After which it is bottled. However, there are certain nuances that must be taken into account. The dissolver mixes the flammable paint components and at the same time disperses its bulk components (primarily pigments). For these purposes, a dissolver with a central shaft and a mill without a frame mixer is also suitable. All water-dispersion paints, including acrylic, although they are more environmentally friendly than other types of coatings, nevertheless, they are an aggressive environment, the pH of which is higher than normal. For this reason, the containers in which the paint is prepared and mixed, all pipes and communications must be made of stainless steel. The tank in which the components are mixed is usually coated with glaze from the inside. For pumping finished paint from one container to another, a screw pump is used. The fact is that ordinary pumps like centrifugal or gear pumps can degrade the properties and quality of the finished paint. The diameter of the pump, which is used to produce water-dispersion paints, reaches 100 millimeters, and the atmospheric pressure of the substance is no more than eight atmospheres. So, first, water is poured into the dissolver. After the mixer is turned on, other components are added to the water, according to the recipe. Then the whole mixture is thoroughly mixed to avoid the formation of lumps within 1.5-2 hours (the exact time depends on the amount of ingredients). At the last stage, dispersion is added to the mixture, after which the paint is mixed a little and poured into the container. Finished paint is stored at a temperature not exceeding +2 degrees Celsius.
In order to organize your own average volume (producing about 5 tons of paints and varnishes per shift), the production of acrylic paints, you will need a production room with an area of 40 to 80 square meters. meters and production line. The temperature regime in the shops should be maintained at the level of 16-18 degrees Celsius, so they should be heated. Also, the room must be equipped with exhaust ventilation, electrical communications, water supply and sewage. The main equipment and devices for the production of paints and varnishes include: industrial dissolver (mixer), electronic scales, hydraulic trolleys with a forklift, Euro pallets, containers for bulk materials, commodity scales. At large enterprises, instead of simple dissolvers, semi-automatic mini-factories are used, which allow to produce large volumes of paints and varnishes with lower costs. The raw materials used are dispersion, antifoam, dispersant, calcium carbonate, thickener, coalescent, titanium dioxide.
To work in production, you will need workers (sludge-pourers) and a master technologist. Companies that supply equipment for the production of paints and varnishes, as a rule, offer their clients training services for personnel in the existing production and installation and maintenance of equipment, as well as the necessary technical documentation, including technological regulations, recommendations for starting production. You can also purchase information materials from them, including proven recipes.
The production of one ton of water-dispersion paints requires about 1.5-2 hours. The cost of the necessary equipment and production technology (documentation and training of employees) is from 350 thousand rubles. The equipment can be purchased from manufacturers, from manufacturing enterprises (a cheaper option is to buy used equipment) or made independently according to the drawings. Renting a production room (plus storage facilities for storing finished products) will require at least 20-25 thousand rubles, depending on the location of the workshop. Add to these costs the wages of employees (from 15 thousand rubles per person, depending on the region), advertising costs (from 10-15 thousand rubles per month), utilities.
According to equipment manufacturers, all the costs of organizing the production of acrylic-based paints and varnishes can be recouped in a matter of months (as a rule, they are called from three months to six months). But most likely in practice, these terms will be significantly longer. And it's not even the complexity of organizing production, finding recipes or debugging equipment. First of all, the problem is the marketing of finished products. Acrylic paints and varnishes are in great demand. Moreover, their production does not require serious investments, and the technology is relatively simple. It is not surprising that competition in this segment of finishing materials is especially high. You will literally have to win your place in this market and win the trust of consumers. Experienced entrepreneurs are advised to focus first on a narrower segment. It can be either one region (for example, the one where your production is located), or a limited range (for example, the production of only art, which is more difficult and costly, or exclusively of facade acrylic paints). The first option has certain advantages - it will be easier for you to organize the sale of paint, negotiating directly with individual stores in your city and region, where everything is sold for repair and construction. In this case, you can even do at first completely without advertising. The good quality of your products and competitive prices are likely to attract the attention of customers without additional investment in promotion.
(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to business plans and guides