What is an aluminum profile and glass construction? This is a finished product (window, door, balcony, showcase, facade, dome, etc.), consisting of a system profile with a thermal bridge (without a thermal bridge), a double-glazed window and accessories.
Specialists subdivide aluminum structures into window-door and front-dome. Window-door structures (more simply - windows and doors) can be “cold” (without a thermal bridge) and “warm” (with a thermal bridge) ...
The thermobridge is a profile from polyurethane or polyamide. It is inserted between two aluminum profiles that make up a single system (for example, a window).
Cold constructions are used where heat storage is not required. These are internal windows, doors, partitions, stained-glass windows. On the contrary, “warm” constructions are installed where heat preservation is necessary. These are entrance doors, exterior windows, balconies, etc.
Facade-dome structures are divided into classic (supporting-crossbar or post-crossbar), with structural glazing and semi-structural glazing. Facade systems are used in the construction of facade curtain walls, domes, translucent roofs, winter gardens etc.
Facade - the front side of the building, structure.
Double-glazed window - a building product from two or more sheets of glass connected around the perimeter by a metal frame (clip). Closed cavities between the glasses are filled with dried air. They are used for glazing buildings.
Profile (French profil, from Italian profilo - outline) - side view of a person or object.
Of the aluminum profiles of certain types are system profiles, which are used in the manufacture of windows, doors, etc.
Roller - roller conveyor.
Impost (from Italian. Imposta) - architectural. The completion of a pillar, column or end of the wall, serving as a support for the arch (from the Dictionary of Foreign Words). In our case, window and door manufacturers define impost as a profile that divides the window into several parts. Impost "window" is also called the T-profile.
The crossbar (from German riegel) is an element of a building structure located mainly horizontally: in frame buildings - it connects columns, in frames - racks, in farms - rafters in the middle of their height, etc.
Over the past six to seven years, the number of objects in the construction of which glass-aluminum constructions are used has been constantly growing. The widespread distribution of aluminum structures contributes to their lightness, presentable appearance and relative cheapness.
In Ukraine, the assembly of structures made of aluminum and glass began to be actively and massively engaged about eight years ago. Although the first "assembly" cooperatives appeared back in the late 80s. Then the profiles were imported to Ukraine from Russia. Own aluminum raw materials appeared in Ukraine in 1979 with the completion of the construction of the Brovarsky (now Kiev) plant of aluminum building structures. Today, aluminum structural profile is no longer produced only in the capital. Similar production is in Sumy, Dnepropetrovsk and Donetsk.
Imported aluminum profile (for example, Italian or Yugoslav production) in Ukraine is also available. In a considerable quantity and the widest assortment.
This thesis is confirmed even by the official data on production volumes of structures and products from aluminum alloys, as well as “export-import”, given below.
So the "aluminum-structural" market is growing. And although, according to experts, today in Ukraine about 400 companies are already assembling windows, doors and other structures from aluminum profiles, there is plenty of room for beginners. It is obvious.
Manufacturer about the market
- The domestic market of aluminum structures is very promising. I have often been to Greece with my specialists. In Athens, I have never met a window made of plastic. In Europe, the market for aluminum structures is much more developed than in Ukraine. According to some reports, 16 kg of aluminum products are consumed annually for every European citizen. We have only about 300 g. So we are up to Europeans to grow and grow. Such "underdevelopment" of our market attracts foreigners.
When organizing a factory for the manufacture of aluminum structures (with an accompanying installation unit), you will have to obtain a certificate for the production of products, a certificate of product conformity, a license for construction and installation works.
To get a "certificate of production", it is necessary to develop a project for the production complex. Then go with him to an appointment with the head of the local administration and get prior permission. The loyal attitude of the head of the "region" must be "confirmed" by coordinating the project with firefighters, sanitary epidemiologists, ecologists, representatives of the labor protection service, "water canals", and power engineers. Then, with the agreed project documentation (which takes into account all the comments and corrects all the errors), the "race" will have to be repeated. For the final approval of the project, you will need visas of all the above authorities.
You can’t do without a certificate of conformity. Such a "paper" must accompany every type of product that the entrepreneur intends to produce. Be it a window, door, showcase or facade system. In order to obtain a certificate of conformity for products, it is necessary to develop a product design, make a sample and submit it to the State Regional Center for Standardization and Certification. Here the product will be tested in many ways (noise, water, air tightness, etc.). According to manufacturers, a certificate for each type of product costs at least $ 600. Among the metropolitan certification centers to be contacted, “window workers” mentioned UkrTsSM, research institute of building materials, Ukrainian regional civil engineering research institute.
A license for construction and installation works in Kiev, for example, can be obtained in the licensing department at GlavAPU, in the Kiev city licensing center. The cost of such a permit "sheet" - $ 120-150. The necessary set of documents can be issued in two to three months. In monetary terms, the “print-subscription” campaign will cost $ 1-5 thousand (depending on the number of types of products).
If in the production of aluminum structures it is planned to use an import profile that is not yet certified in Ukraine, then it will have to be certified. Permission "paper" issued for two years, approximately costs $ 4-5 thousand, and for five years - $ 10-15. There is another option when only a batch of profile is certified. To get a one-time “good bude”, the licensing authority will have to pay $ 500-600.
The number of employees of an enterprise specializing in the assembly of 5-10 window-door structures per shift does not exceed 8-12 people. Two-thirds of workers are engaged in the manufacture of structures and their installation, and the rest are in the acceptance of orders and sale of finished products.
A production manager and assemblers work in the production workshop. The production manager (or shift foreman) monitors compliance with the process. The rest specialize in what. Some are in cutting aluminum profiles, some are in joining and pressing corners, some are in milling holes for fittings (as a rule, workers can easily replace each other). The salary of a worker in firms is the equivalent of $ 120-320, the foreman - $ 200-500.
About installers ... A team of installers usually consists of two to three people. There are special requirements for them. It happens that the company produces windows or doors of high quality, and their installation leaves much to be desired. The customer did not like the work, and ... the window needs to be mounted again. Time and money are lost. Therefore, some manufacturers do not acquire an assembly team. They sell their own products to construction and installation companies specializing specifically in the installation of structures. The number of such partners can reach 10-15.
If the company focuses on the production of complex architectural systems (facades, domes, winter gardens, etc.), then you must definitely find a competent design engineer. You can either train such a necessary specialist yourself by spending two or three months and several thousand dollars on it, or entice you from another company by promising a good salary ($ 500-800).
Window and shop window assemblers, qualified installers can be trained in special training and education courses in training centers organized by representatives of profile manufacturers. By the way, representatives of "specialized" companies periodically hold free seminars and workshops for everyone. According to experts, they become a good installer or welder of profiles in three to four months.
What is needed to organize an enterprise for the production of aluminum structures? First, draw up documents. Secondly, purchase a set of equipment. Third, rent a room. According to practitioners, depending on the size of the enterprise, the total amount of capital investment can range from $ 5 thousand to $ 50 thousand. According to manufacturers, with minimal starting investments, money can be "beaten off" in six months or a year. At the maximum - in two years.
The profitability of the assembly of aluminum structures is 10-12%.
Consumer about consumption
- The use of aluminum structures in the construction of commercial and residential buildings is increasing every year.
Despite the fact that the season has just begun, we have already handed over two objects in which more than 1 thousand square meters of aluminum structures were used in the construction of the facade ...
We have already developed a certain circle of suppliers of profile systems and contracting companies that make structures from aluminum profiles.
We are satisfied with the cooperation with these companies; nevertheless, we are conducting a tender to complete a new order. First for suppliers, and then for installation companies.
When choosing an installation contractor, first of all, we pay attention to the reputation of the company and its "track record" (specific objects). After all, a facade made of aluminum structures is a very complex architectural structure.
There are two ways to connect angles. The first way is screwing. That is, grooves (special holes) are cut out in the profile, into which screeds and bolts are fastened to connect the corners. The second is pressing. The edges of the profiles are lubricated with glue and crimped on a special machine. According to the manufacturers, crimping (or chasing) is a more expensive but reliable way. Actually, why all this? And besides, the first way to connect the corners is easier than the second. In the first case, it’s enough to buy a saw and calmly engage in construction work (by the way, many “Uncle Vasya” do this). Therefore, a set of equipment necessary for the first method, we will not consider.
The minimum set of equipment for assembling aluminum structures by pressing is richer: a saw for cutting a profile, a press for connecting corners, a compressor with a dehumidifier and a set of pneumatic tools. In this situation, cash costs for the purchase of equipment will range from $ 5 thousand to $ 10 thousand. This set of equipment will allow to produce 5-10 windows per shift.
Further capacity building, allowing, say, to produce 15-20 windows per shift, will require additional purchases of equipment - a two-head stationary saw with cooling (for cutting the profile), a copy-milling machine (using it to make holes for accessories), a milling machine for processing the ends of the impost (makes special cuts on the profile), a stand for adjusting the angles and installing a double-glazed window, a saw for cutting glazing beads (sometimes a second machine for connecting angles). In this case, the cost of the entire fleet of equipment can range from $ 15 thousand to $ 40 thousand.
Buying new equipment is optional. In the same Poland or Germany, you can buy reconditioned, which will cost 25-40% cheaper.
In addition, a set of equipment complements the computer with a specialized program. The program allows you to make calculations and issues a production task for cutting material. That is, upon receipt of the order, data on it immediately (even during a telephone conversation with the customer) is entered into the computer. The latter within two to three minutes issues a routing and preliminary cost of the product. You can, of course, do without a computer program and carry out all calculations "manually." But it will take tens of times more time. According to the manufacturers, out of four to five calls, only one belongs to the real buyer. Prices for such software products are in the range of $ 0.3-2 thousand.
A car for transporting finished products can first be rented, but in the future it is necessary to provide for its purchase.
The basic set of equipment is supplemented by various tables for assembling windows, trolleys for their transportation, various stands. You can buy them or make them yourself.
Of the tools you need to purchase pneumatic drills, pneumatic screwdrivers, special hammers, suction cups for carrying double-glazed windows, scissors for cutting gaskets, etc. $ 2-3 thousand will have to be allocated for "technical support".
When installing an aluminum facade, scaffolding is used. They can be rented or bought. The rent for 1 square meter of imported scaffolding ranges from $ 0.08 to $ 0.25, and you can buy them for $ 20 or more.
Director of a production and commercial company
- We produce windows, doors, portal systems, entrance groups made of wood, plastic and aluminum. Our machine park allows you to produce up to 150 different windows per day. But production capacities are only 20-30% loaded. Why? To mount 150 windows per day, more than 200 people are needed. I do not have the opportunity to contain so many installers. And this is not just our situation. So, in my opinion, there are already enough capacities for the production of aluminum structures in Ukraine. Now you need to increase the volume of housing and commercial construction, to develop the market ...
In Germany, for example, not a single manufacturer of windows and doors mounts its products. They do whatever they want (develop a dealer network, seek corporate customers, work to reduce the cost of products, etc.), but do not pick up a hammer and mounting foam.
They have the installation of windows and doors - this is a separate type of business. So far we have the opposite ...
Where to buy equipment
Buying equipment for the production of aluminum structures in Ukraine is not difficult. Representative offices of foreign companies - manufacturers of "window-making" equipment are open in Kiev and many other large cities. Among them, we can mention Fimtec, Wegoma, Elumatec, Aluma, Urban (Germany), AGF, Perticci (Italy), Balkan (Greece), Murat (Turkey) and others. To get western equipment, it needs to be certified. Depending on where the entrepreneur will issue the certificate, it can take from $ 1 to $ 5 thousand to receive the latter.
Raw materials and components
The main components of the aluminum window are aluminum profiles, fittings and double-glazed windows.
In Ukraine, aluminum profiles are produced by KP “Kiev Plant of Aluminum Building Structures” (Brovary, Kiev region), JSC “Plant Efkon” (Kiev), ZAO “Yugchermet”, NPF “Metallic-Avial” (both - . Dnepropetrovsk), a joint Ukrainian-Turkish venture CJSC Donetsk Aluminum Profile Plant (Donetsk), Sumy Machine-Building NGO named after Frunze (Sumy).
In addition, Ukraine has an abundant import profile. There are products of German firms Schuco, Hueсk, Hartmann, Wicona, Broekelmann, Belgian - Reynaers, RS, Italian - Metra, All. Co, Tekhno, Greek - Alumil, Balkan, Etem, Polish - Yawal, Spektral, Metalplast, Turkish - Asas, Saray, Fenis and Russian Agrisovgaz.
Accessories for windows, doors and other aluminum structures - mainly foreign production. In the domestic market, hardware filling is sold by Schuco, Hueсk, Roto frank, Siegenia, GU, Doctor Hahn, Dorma (Germany), Sobinco (Belgium), Giesse, Savio, Lavaal (Italy), Saray (Turkey).
A set of accessories, for example, for a single-leaf pivot window costs from $ 10 to $ 45, and for a tilt-and-drop “frame” - within $ 20-60.
The production of double-glazed windows is a separate and complex type of business. Therefore, even eminent companies - manufacturers of aluminum structures prefer to order double-glazed windows on the side. Depending on the quality of the glass used, its size, the cost of 1 sq. M of a double-glazed window is from $ 30 to $ 100. These numbers are not limiting.
To organize your own "glass" production, you will need about $ 50 thousand.
The price of the finished product from aluminum structures depends on the profile used, the fittings, as well as the type of product itself (for example, a blind, one-, two- or three-leaf window).
The cost of 1 square meter of a dull "cold" window is from $ 40, and 1 square meter of the same window, but a "warm" one is 1.8-2 times more.
The price of 1 square meter of the facade varies even more widely - from $ 80 to $ 600.
How to choose a profile
For the manufacture of aluminum structures using various aluminum profiles. Из них составляют оконные, дверные и фасадные системы. Их еще называют строительными.
Чтобы сосчитать количество таких систем, хватит пальцев одной руки. А импортных - немеряно.
Как сказал один из производителей, если считать количество импортных систем, "можно сознание потерять".
Первоначально предпринимателю необходимо определить, с какой системой он будет "дружить".
При выборе системы производители алюминиевых конструкций в первую очередь обращают внимание на их "доступность" и цену. Профили продаются в килограммах и погонных метрах. Стоимость одного погонного метра профиля колеблется от $0, 3 до $50 в зависимости от сложности формы его сечения, наличия или отсутствия на нем покрытия и многих других факторов.
Обычно для изготовления оконно-дверной системы требуется 10-12 видов алюминиевых "багетов".
Цех по производству конструкций из алюминия и стекла можно разместить в помещении площадью 100-150 кв.м. Жестких требований к его температурному режиму, как это было с металлопластиковым производством (зимой температура в цехе должна быть не менее 16оС), нет.
Также нет необходимости в большом складе для хранения профилей. Достаточно комнаты для хранения фурнитуры площадью 24-30 кв.м.
Сегодня в промышленной зоне Киева, находящейся на окраине города, стоимость аренды 1 кв.м отапливаемого помещения - $2-5 в месяц
* The article is more than 8 years old. May contain outdated data