The production technology of vermicompost, indeed, is not difficult. For the production of vermicompost, the following “components” will be required: rotten cattle manure, hay or silage, ripe leaves, sawdust, food waste, technological worms (California and its various varieties, Vladimir). First you need to prepare a nutrient medium for the worms, which is rotted compost and manure. As a rule, it is not very convenient to withstand the product of processing on its site. Therefore, it is better to agree with the supplier of this raw material that he was given some time to lie down.
For worms, containers are prepared - large wooden boxes. At the next stage, compost is placed in boxes. Moreover, if it includes fermented manure and other components (leaves, sawdust, food waste), then the compost must be thoroughly mixed. From above, a layer of compost is covered with a layer of dry grass, which will maintain an optimal level of humidity and temperature in the box. Ripening compost must be periodically (every 2-3 days) mixed so that it does not cake and moisten with warm water so that the mass does not dry. At the very beginning, while the fermentation process is taking place, the temperature inside the box reaches 50 degrees Celsius, but then it gradually decreases. Worms are populated in boxes after the compost mass is fully prepared.
Experts advise not to start all the worms at once, but first to test the mass on several tens of individuals. If all goes well, then you can populate the rest. Within a couple of months, the worms develop in a new environment, after which they begin to multiply. Compost humidity should be 70-80%, and the pH should not exceed 8. In winter, the temperature inside the boxes should be at least 19 degrees Celsius. You can raise the temperature by covering the compost with a layer of dry grass, moistening it with warm water and placing it in a heated room. The substrate must be regularly loosened and fed every ten days. 3-4 months after the compost has been populated by worms, the worms are counted, for which a sample is taken from a plot of 10 by 10 cm. The number of worms in it is multiplied by 100. Excess worms can be sold to fisheries, directly to fishermen, poultry farms and producers of bone meal. At the third stage, biohumus and worms are collected. To collect humus, the substrate is sieved through a 2 mm sieve. The worms remaining in the sieve are deposited in a separate box. You can do without sifting. It is enough not to feed the worms for several days, and then apply the substrate to the surface of the compost. In a couple of days, the worms will rise to the surface where they can be collected. The collected humus is weighed and packaged in plastic bags.
To organize the production of biohumus, a heated room will be required to place boxes with compost and worms. Since the production cycle is year-round and continuous, production volumes can be very large. Therefore, you will need a warehouse to store finished products. In addition, you will need to buy a packaging line with a dispenser for packaging humus in bags of 3-6 kg and 20-50 kg. Humus in bags of a smaller volume can be sold through retail stores, and in bags of a larger volume - through wholesale companies. The cost of such a line is more than 1 million rubles, but you can save on it and buy scales and a manual bag sealer instead (all together will cost about 5 thousand rubles). To keep the worms you will need wooden boxes with a bottom made of strong boards or metal. You can also purchase special vermicomposters. To moisten the compost mass, irrigation systems (usually drip) are used. The cost of the simplest such system is about 1-1.5 thousand rubles. Do not forget about tools and working equipment: rake, shovel, sieve, buckets, etc.
You will also need to purchase worms, establish a constant supply of manure, fresh leaves and food waste, develop packaging options, conclude sales agreements with partners, and arrange delivery of finished products to customers. Biohumus can be sold directly to gardeners, gardening associations, horticultural stores, poultry farms, meat and bone meal producers, and agricultural enterprises. Selling worms to fishermen and fisheries can often bring a profit comparable to the profit from the sale of humus itself. Thus, your product range may include vermicompost itself, concentrated liquid humus, bio-earth (a mixture of bio-humus and earth in a certain proportion), and worms.
The costs of organizing such production include the purchase of equipment (about 45-50 thousand rubles without a packing line), the purchase of raw materials (50 thousand rubles), the equipment of the premises with furnace heating (45 thousand rubles), registration and IP and other expenses. You can start a business with 150 thousand rubles, and then gradually expand production volumes at the expense of profit. The profitability of such a business is estimated at 40%. With a livestock of 100 thousand worms, the payback period will be up to six months, and the total revenue will exceed 1 million rubles.
On the Internet you can find a lot of material both on the technology of production of vermicompost, and on the calculations of profitability and payback. Nevertheless, far from all of them (especially the rainbow ones) correspond to reality. So, for example, if you are counting on a good profit, then you will not be able to manage the minimum investments, as well as pay them back in a short time. Firstly, the preparation of raw materials for the preparation of the substrate takes quite a lot of time - about six months. Thus, if you did not find a supplier of finished raw materials with the necessary exposure, then you can start your business no earlier than six months later. Secondly, with large-scale production, a barn heated by a stove cannot be dispensed with. It will take a whole barn, which still needs to be prepared - to make even floors for ridges (fill the floor with concrete), lay windows with bricks so that the heat does not blow out of the room in winter, make the lowest possible suspended ceiling to maintain heat, equip access roads, make repair of internal premises, prepare production and storage facilities, etc. In addition, the finished humus will need to be dried (with large volumes of production, warm floors will be needed) and passed through a crusher.
To start a business, you can do 150 thousand rubles. However, the larger the volume of production, the greater the investment. In particular, some suppliers of raw materials give the following technological and economic calculation for the production of vermicompost per 1000 square meters. meters of heated area. In their opinion, the initial costs do not exceed 500 thousand rubles, and by the end of the first year of work, the entrepreneur will receive finished products worth 3 million rubles (250 tons of humus produced at 12 rubles per kilogram). According to the calculations, the profit for the first year of operation will amount to 2.5 million rubles. In fact, investments at the initial stage will be an order of magnitude higher. It will be necessary to purchase land and premises (or at least rent them out), carry out repairs and refurbish the production area, purchase and deliver 500 tons of manure, purchase worms, tools, equipment for packing, separation, crushing of humus. In addition, you will need at least one tractor with a blade and a trailer, several workers for the production of humus and maintenance of equipment ... Of course, all these expenses will clearly not fit into half a million. Moreover, according to a rough estimate, they will amount to at least 4.5-5 million rubles.
Also, do not trust rumors about a 300% profitability of the biohumus business. The real costs of conducting such production activities are from 1.5 million rubles per year. The main items of expenditure are heating, raw materials, electricity, and wages for workers. Real profitability is not more than 100%. And then, this is true only with an increase in productivity up to 350-400 tons of vermicompost per year. However, with such volumes of production, another question arises - how to establish marketing of these products and, no less important, at what price. In the capital, for example, humus is sold in stores at a price of 25 rubles per kilogram, but for regions often even 10 rubles per kilogram can be too high a price. There is another problem - the low awareness of farmers, summer residents, gardeners and gardeners about the benefits of vermicompost. This type of organic fertilizer, despite its high efficiency and safety, has not yet become widespread in our country. Your potential buyers often don’t even know what it is. In addition, the technologies for growing many common crops have not yet been adapted for the use of vermicompost. All this greatly complicates the organization of sales of vermicompost in large volumes.
However, despite all the above difficulties, the biohumus production business deserves attention. It is most advantageous to deal with it in conjunction with your existing business in the field of agriculture (for example, a farm for raising cattle, raising rabbits, poultry, etc.).
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