It is difficult to come up with a less original idea for your own business than opening a small bakery or pastry shop. This option of starting a business is primarily of interest to women. And such a business takes its start from a usual hobby.
However, many entrepreneurs, when choosing a direction for organizing their own enterprise, are stopped by a high probability of going broke in the first year of work due to high competition in this segment. In fact, many small shops, cafes and restaurants, as well as large enterprises, including bakeries, are engaged in the manufacture of confectionery. It is simply impossible to compete with most of them with a small starting capital if you plan to open the next bakery or confectionery with a standard assortment. The only way to not only stay in this market, but also to occupy your own niche is to come up with such a “specialization” of your enterprise that in itself would turn into a competitive advantage.
What could be such an advantage? For example, you can limit the range of products you produce as much as possible. At first glance, this decision is bewildering, because most companies, on the contrary, hope to expand their product line as much as possible to cater for "every taste." But small firms have a great advantage over the giants: they can afford to produce no more than ten items.
The main thing is that they all unite on one basis. It’s not enough to be just ordinary shortbread cookies. They should be different from what is presented on the shelves of most grocery stores and stalls with pastries.
Recently, the interest of buyers in confectionery products with national flavor has been growing. In our country there are small bakeries that produce, for example, only biscotti cookies. Biscotti has a long history and comes from Italy. Biscotti is translated into Russian as "cooked twice." Biscotti is indeed baked in two stages. First, the dough is baked in bars, and then cut into separate slices, which are re-sent to the oven. Thanks to the special cooking technology, biscotti can be stored for up to four months.
It would seem that the range of such a bakery is very limited, but in fact there are a large number of different options for biscotti recipes (for example, one of the varieties of biscotti is Tuscan cantuccini cookies). Someone adapts the recipe to the preferences of the Russian audience, and someone tries to stick as close as possible to the original Biscotti di Prato recipe, which, according to legend, appeared in the 13th century. The main ingredients of an authentic treat: premium flour, sugar, fresh eggs, drinking water, salt, baking powder and vanillin (French vanillin is recommended). Such cookies contain a minimum of sugar. It is quite hard and dry, so it is advised to dip it before drinking it (ideally coffee or white dessert wine, but you can also eat it with tea or milk). In addition, various ingredients are added to the dough for this Italian cookie - roasted nuts, dried fruits, spices and chocolate.
There are eight classic flavors. Each option includes one type of nuts (hazelnuts, almonds or walnuts) and a second component of plant origin (ginger, kumquat, paradise apple with cinnamon, prunes, raisins, cherries or dried apricots) or chocolate. Since cookies are baked in small batches and usually on order, manufacturers offer customers to independently choose the desired filling. Biscotti is made from high-quality and natural products and does not contain unprofitable preservatives, dyes and stabilizers, which is what manufacturers make special emphasis on.
These biscotti cannot be baked in an ordinary bakery or confectionery, since all the operations for their preparation (and there are quite a lot of them) are carried out manually, including roasting, peeling and chopping nuts and even assembling cardboard boxes for cookies and packing them in them.
The standard average packing of Biscotti is 300 grams each, a small gift box is 150 grams each, but it is also sold by weight. The retail price of a weighted cookie is 700 rubles per kilogram, in a 150 gram gift box - 150 rubles, and in a standard 300 gram box - 200-250 rubles.
As such a “specialization” of your mini-bakery, you can choose any confectionery from the cuisine of various countries. Now the greatest interest is the cuisine of Italy, Spain and France. There will be no problems with finding recipes and studying the features of the technology for cooking cookies, so we will dwell in more detail on the organizational issues that you will certainly encounter when opening your own mini-bakery. A mini-bakery is a small company that produces exclusively bakery products.
Mini-bakeries often also act as confectioneries, producing cakes and pastries. Some restaurants and cafes, as well as super and hypermarkets, have their own small bakeries. However, they can be independent enterprises created by one or more entrepreneurs. In the latter case, mini-bakeries are often positioned as family-owned and can eventually develop into a whole network. If you are going to do business in this area, then first you need to register the company.
There are two suitable forms - individual entrepreneur and limited liability company. In addition, you must select activity codes. This list should also include retail trade (if you do not plan to work only with legal entities), but production will still be the main focus.
Most mini-bakeries begin their activity as an individual entrepreneur with UTII or STS (depending on which tax systems are available for your type of business in your region). As a rule, a tax application with the chosen taxation system is submitted immediately after the registration of your company.
The second question, which is no less relevant than the registration of your company, is related to the choice of premises for a bakery. Already at this stage it is necessary to decide whether you intend to sell your baked goods to retail customers at your own outlet or not. If you also intend to sell confectionery products at the place of their production, then your bakery should be located in a place with high traffic, preferably near shopping and office centers. Rental prices vary by region.
In Moscow, the average rental cost of a suitable room is, on average, about 800 rubles per square meter. When combining the shop with a retail point of sale, a room with an area of about 150 sq. meters. Additional items of expenditure are repair work and the purchase of commercial equipment.
However, there is another option, which is chosen by those who do not have a sufficiently large start-up capital. In this case, the finished product is sold either exclusively in bulk (to shops, cafes and restaurants), or delivered to private customers on order (customers are via the Internet and standard advertising media). Then there is no need for a large area and you can rent a smaller room, where the bakery itself will be located.
SES has a number of requirements for such a building. There should be hot and cold water and sewage. The bakery should be ventilated (and not located in the basement). Its ceilings will have to be whitewashed, and the walls should be tiled.
In addition, you will need separate rooms for a warehouse, toilet, storage space for clothes, equipment, etc. For a mini-bakery, regardless of the type of products it produces, special equipment will be required. The list of necessary equipment includes an oven (its cost is about 500-650 thousand rubles, depending on the model), a sifter for flour (10 thousand rubles), a machine for kneading dough (about 300 thousand rubles), proofer (50 thousand rubles), equipment for rolling dough (25 thousand rubles), a table for working with dough (45-45 thousand rubles), a trolley for transportation (15 thousand rubles) plus work equipment (15-20 thousand rubles) . With this equipment, it is possible to produce about 1000-1500 kg of finished products per shift.
Even if you do not plan to work in such volumes for the first time, experts still advise you not to save on equipment. When your business “spins up” and the number of orders increases significantly, replacing equipment will require considerable funds. Therefore, it is better to purchase equipment with sufficient power at the very beginning of work.
Some entrepreneurs do not start with a bakery, but with the so-called part-time production. In fact, they buy semi-finished products and are exclusively engaged in baking, decorating, packaging and marketing of finished products. In this case, you can do with one oven and a freezer for storing frozen dough. However, this option is not suitable if you do not want to be limited to a standard assortment of confectionery products.
When combining production with a retail outlet, an additional cost item for retail equipment will appear, which includes a display case, cash register, safe for storing money and documentation.
To open your own bakery you will need a number of permits. This list includes a sanitary-epidemiological certificate for production, a sanitary-epidemiological certificate for products, a certificate of conformity, a conclusion of a fire inspection on compliance with fire safety requirements.
The first two documents can be executed at Rospotrebnadzor, and the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology issues a certificate of conformity. Do not forget that every employee of your production should have a personal medical book. Its design will cost up to 1000 rubles. Experienced entrepreneurs advise to budget for the preparation of all necessary documents in the amount of 100 thousand rubles (with a small margin).
After the premises have been found, your company is officially registered, and all the necessary documents have been received, it is necessary to search for personnel. To work at the bakery you will need a technologist and bakers, and sellers on the trading floor (if any). With average production volumes, 3-4 bakers will be required per one eight-hour shift.
However, in the first stages, if you do not plan to produce several hundred kilograms of cookies per day from the very beginning, all these functions can be taken over. But still, even in this case, you need at least a couple of assistants and couriers who will deliver orders around the city. Someone will also have to deal with advertising, search for wholesale buyers, purchase raw materials, solve organizational issues, take orders by phone and on the Internet ... So, most likely, you can’t do without an assistant (even from your family members). In addition, you will need the services of an accountant, but it is not necessary to take it for a whole working day. You can contact an outsourcing specialist.
The exact list of raw materials needed for the production of cookies, and its consumption depends on the recipes you use. In any case, you will need premium flour, yeast, salt, sugar, fresh eggs, vanillin, baking powder, food additives, butter, dried fruits, nuts, etc.
The greatest difficulties, perhaps, will cause the search for suppliers of flour. The quality of the finished product directly depends on its quality. On the other hand, its purchase price should not be the highest, otherwise the cost of your confectionery products will increase. It does not make sense for small enterprises to purchase flour directly from flour mills, since the latter sell it in large quantities.
Do not forget that the storage of flour requires special conditions both in terms of room humidity and temperature. For these reasons, mini-bakeries buy raw materials from intermediary companies in small batches, seeking the most favorable conditions for cooperation.
One of the last, but no less significant items of expenses when starting your own business is advertising and promotion. Well-proven ways to declare themselves and their product, as the distribution of leaflets (both through the promoter and through mailboxes in apartment buildings). More expensive advertising methods in this case do not work as efficiently. Experts advise actively using methods of promotion on the Internet.
So, to organize your own bakery, you will need to rent a room and repair it if necessary, purchase equipment and furniture, purchase raw materials. Do not forget to take into account utility bills, salaries to employees (even if it’s only an incoming accountant), expenses for advertising, promotion and support of groups on social networks, advertising on forums and regional sites. If your product is unique and is positioned in the price segment above the average, you will have to spend money on packing it. Standard packaging in plastic bags will not work. Packaging should be beautiful, environmentally friendly (best of thin cardboard) and compact.
An enterprise that produces and sells standard baked goods (rolls, puffs, cheesecakes, etc.) has a high profitability, which can reach 50-60%. A small bakery with a narrow specialization has a profitability of no more than 20%. Therefore, in the first case, it will be more difficult for you to enter the market and cope with high competition, but with a successful combination of circumstances, the payback period will be much less (about one and a half years), and the profit will be more. In the second case, one should not expect to reach the level of self-sufficiency earlier than after 2.5-3 years.
Consider also the seasonality factor. Cookies, like other pastries, are best sold in the autumn-winter period. In summer, there is a noticeable decline in sales. Therefore, it is recommended to plan the launch of production in September-October.
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