Own business: bread production

Food industry Bakery products

Crispbread, which acts as an alternative to the usual yeast bread, is a dietary product with many unique properties. The only drawback of bread is its specific taste. Even despite the wide variety of different flavors that are used in their production, bread is still inferior in quality to traditional bread. However, they can be used in its pure form as a breakfast cereal with tea, coffee or other drinks. Often, some unhealthy ingredients (preservatives, dyes, flavorings) are added to the composition of some varieties of ordinary bread. In addition, it is too high in calories. The recipe for making bread may vary, but in any case this product is made exclusively from natural ingredients, it does not contain artificial additives, is rich in fiber, vitamins, has a high nutritional value and low calorie content. Given the skyrocketing demand for diet products, bread production may turn out to be a profitable business. Of course, entering the market now will be somewhat more difficult than several years ago, when this product was still new and its manufacturers could be counted on the fingers.

Today, to succeed with the new brand in the face of fierce competition, you will have to invest a lot of effort, time, money and ingenuity.

According to analysts, the market growth of this type of product will amount to about 10-15% per year over the next few years. Moreover, its main development will take place by increasing the consumption of so-called innovative products. The market volume of bread, as well as thin crackers (usually these products are considered together, although they have completely different qualities) in Russia is more than 20 thousand tons. At the moment, the main increase is due to thin crackers and extruder bread rolls.

Bread rolls are available in a wide range. They are made from various types of cereal crops and mixtures, which determines their useful properties. Bread rolls are wheat, rye, rice, wheat-rye, from a mixture of cereals, buckwheat. Also, this product is divided into several types, depending on the presence and type of additives: without additives (buckwheat, corn, rye, with bran, fructose), with natural additives and natural flavors, with a filling (usually sweet).

Bread rolls, contrary to popular belief, are far from a new product. In the Scandinavian countries, they have long been a familiar substitute for ordinary bread. Industrial production of bread began there too, when Vaasan & Vaasan appeared in Finland more than a century ago. The first Western-made bread appeared on the Russian market in the 1990s. And from the beginning of the 2000s, the first domestic manufacturing companies appeared. The largest Russian brands include Bread Bread Rolls (Rostov-on-Don), Diet Marka (Penza), Victoria (Ryazan), Healthier (St. Petersburg) and others.

Bread rolls can be made from whole grains (such bread rolls are called extruders) or from whole flour. The former consider it more useful, since there is nothing in their composition except the grain and flour itself. The product of the second type is more similar in composition and cooking technology to ordinary bread. Let us consider in more detail the technology for the production of bread of the second type. Technologically, the process of production of bread can be divided into several main operations. First, raw materials are prepared for production, then the dough is kneaded. At the third stage, the dough wanders, after which blanks are formed from it. After the billets are proofed, the products are baked, dried, cooled, the layers are cut into separate plates, which are finally packed in plastic bundles.

Preparation of raw materials for production takes place in the usual manner. Salt and rye products are dosed dry, in other cases, the components are dissolved or mixed in a solution with sugar and salt. Pressed yeast dissolves in warm water. Regardless of the type of finished product, the dough for them is prepared in a straightforward manner in a continuous kneading machine. Other operations are also carried out automatically. For example, the dosage of solutions of salt sugar, melted fats and vegetable oil is carried out using a special dosing station. The temperature of the dough for the production of rye bread is 28-29 ° C, and rye-wheat bread is 31-25 ° C. The humidity of the dough reaches 53-54% and 39-40%, respectively. The dough roams in cylindrical rotating hoppers with a conical bottom made of stainless steel. After an hour from the beginning of fermentation, the dough is crushed in the hopper using air that is supplied from the compressor unit. The full duration of the fermentation test is up to 2.5 hours. It takes so much time for one full revolution of the sectional hopper.

Well-fermented dough is fed through a special hatch in the bottom of the tank into the intermediate hopper. Here it accumulates and enters the funnel of the molding machine. From this funnel, the dough is sent to two horizontally located metal rolls. These rolls act as rolling pins, rolling the dough into a long thin tape 3-4 mm thick and up to 1.5 meters wide. The tape enters the belt conveyor, which is located below the rolls. The conveyor is pre-sprinkled with crumbs, so that the dough does not stick to the conveyor belt. Sprinkle crumbs on top of the dough to prevent it from sticking to the splint tires and cutting equipment knives. Since the dough used for the production of bread is quite dense, air bubbles accumulate in it, which can lead to the formation of swelling on the surface of the finished product. To avoid this, the semi-finished product is punctured in several places to release the air accumulated during the fermentation of the dough. The formed test tape is sent under the cutting device. His knives are tuned in such a way as to carry out longitudinal and transverse cutting of the canvas into large square tiles. This is not the final size of the finished bread. It’s just easier to work with chopped tiles than with a long ribbon.

When preparing products from yeast dough, proofing is of great importance. After dipping, the dough acquires a stronger consistency. To get lush, porous, light and, most importantly, well-baked products, the dough is sent for proofing at elevated temperatures. There it increases in volume as a result of the formation of carbon dioxide inside it. In industrial production, the proofing of the cut test tape is carried out on a conveyor belt in the proofing chamber. This process takes from 30 to 45 minutes, which is three times the duration of baking. Proofing is carried out at a temperature of about 30-36 ° C for rye products and 33-34 ° C for rye-wheat with a relative humidity of 80-90%. In the heat, the dough rises, as a result of which its thickness is about 5.5-6.5 mm. Sometimes, immediately before baking, the surface of the dough pieces is moistened or optionally scalded with hot steam. Crispbread is baked in tunnel ovens with a mesh hearth and electric heating. The baking temperature of rye products is 200-360 ° C, and rye-wheat products are 200-290 ° C. The exact baking time is determined individually in each case, since it depends on two main factors - the type of dough and the weight of the finished product. On average, it is from 10 to 15 minutes.

Immediately after baking, the bread is transferred to the cradle of the conveyor of the drying cabinet, where the temperature of the products gradually decreases. At the same time, moisture moisture decreases and a uniform distribution of its residues in the tile is ensured.

The drying time of rye-wheat products is about 30-40 minutes, rye - up to 3.5 hours at an air temperature in an oven of 45-55 ° C.

Too fast cooling of the product without pre-drying may lead to the loss of a significant part of its consumer properties (in particular, excess moisture will adversely affect the taste of bread and shelf life).

Dried bread is cooled on a conveyor for 1-4 hours to ambient temperature and until they reach the required humidity. After this time, the square plates are finally sawn into separate parts on a cutting machine. In most cases, their size is 12.5.5 cm. It is due to the fact that it is this format that is suitable for the size of the receiving device of packaging machines of the most popular type. At the last stage, the bread is automatically packed in a plastic film, which is hermetically sealed, preventing moisture from entering the bag during storage.

The shelf life of ordinary crispbreads is about four months, dessert and table products are stored for no more than three months, certain types of bread (for example, tea or beer) retain their consumer properties for a maximum of 1.5 months from the date of manufacture. This must be taken into account when organizing the transportation of finished products and determining the range and volume of production.

However, the most useful are grain breads, which are prepared by extrusion. The production technology of such breads is slightly different. First, a wet mixture is made from grains, flour and eggs. Then it goes to tanks filled with hot air. Under its influence, loaves with a porous consistency resembling dense briquettes from tightly adhered and swollen grains are obtained.

Due to the nature of the production of such products, rye flour is not used for their preparation. In most cases, they may include wheat, buckwheat, pearl barley, rice, corn, etc. Just as in the production of ordinary bread with the addition of yeast, the production of extrusive bread begins with the preparation of raw materials. Whole grain is first sieved. Ferrimagnetic impurities are separated from it using a special installation. The raw material is conditioned, that is, its moisture content is brought to optimum values ​​of 18-20%, which ensures an even distribution of moisture throughout its mass. No food additives are used. Sifted and processed grain is traced for 4-6 hours in special bins. Then the raw materials in portions of 5-6 kg each are fed into the loading hopper, divided into two parts, since in the used plants often two sintering units of bread can simultaneously work simultaneously. As in the first case, the entire production process is carried out automatically. Manually only the installation starts. As a result of the movement of the gate, the grain from the loading hopper is fed into the dosing compartment, and then into the sintering chamber. This camera has a cylindrical shape, which determines the appearance of the future finished product. The upper and lower parts of the chamber are punches (parts for pressing). These punches, heated to a temperature of 280-300 ° C, heat the grain and compress it under high pressure to 5 MPa, exerted by the upper punch.

Rising up, the upper punch opens the chamber, which creates a temperature difference in the chamber and atmosphere and leads to an “explosion” of heated grain due to instant boiling of moisture in its composition. The grain grows in volume, filling the chamber with itself, and acquires a characteristic structure with a large number of micropores. The briquette obtained from this operation from the swollen grain is pushed out of the chamber using the lower punch, and then it is pushed by the gate into the finished product tank.

Despite the fact that most of the work is carried out automatically, human participation is still not enough. The operator working with the installation must monitor the temperature of the heater, pressure indicators according to the instruments and monitor the level of raw materials in the hopper.

Specifications and cost of equipment depend on the specific model, the choice of which is quite large. The average productivity of a small installation is about 400-450 units of bread per hour. Its weight is approximately 60 kg, and dimensions - about 2.85 m? 4.5 m? 4.8 m. To start a business for the production of bread, you need a starting capital of at least 450-500 thousand rubles. This amount includes the purchase of equipment (a purge machine for cleaning grain, a centrifuge or a separator for grinding, a twin-screw extruder and tanks), rental of premises for a workshop with an area of ​​at least 100 square meters. meters, including storage rooms with a minimum level of humidity.

Of course, you will need to register a legal entity or individual entrepreneur, obtain all necessary permits, develop technical specifications and register them in special bodies. The sanitary and epidemiological conclusion and certificate for the products will cost about 60-70 thousand rubles. Up to five people are enough to work in production, depending on the capacities of the future enterprise. Part of the cost will be spent on the purchase of whole grains or ready-made grains.

Do not neglect advertising not even the first stages of your work. People are not inclined to buy unfamiliar products, so you need, firstly, to register your own brand under which you will release your products, and, secondly, to make it recognizable. When developing a logo, packaging and advertising, do not forget that the majority of consumers of such products are women. Try to associate the visual elements that relate to your products with shoppers with lightness, beauty and grace. Packaging should be moderately bright to stand out among similar products on the shelves, but not too flashy so as not to cause associations with a product intended exclusively for young people.

Even at the stage of drawing up a business plan, consider the program for the sale of your products, the volumes and places of its distribution. Some of your bread can be sold through large retail chains, and some through individual small retail outlets. When developing original packaging and unusual tastes of bread (which in this case can be an excellent alternative to chips), they can be sold through vending machines that are installed in shopping centers, train stations, airports, office buildings, etc. For large volumes of production One of the main sales channels for finished products is the wholesale enterprises of your region and other areas. And even with small volumes, at least 25% of the products are usually sold through wholesalers.

Bread rolls, like other similar products, are in stable demand at any time of the year. However, the demand for them, as well as for other products that are considered dietary, especially increases at the end of winter and persists throughout the spring-summer period.

Sysoeva Lilia

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