Despite the widespread use of modern, beautiful and practical flooring, traditional carpets are still widely used to decorate living spaces. They bring comfort to the interior, are an excellent tool for decoration and are used for additional insulation and soundproofing of floors. They are compact and convenient in transportation, do not need bulky and expensive packaging, which helps to save significantly on transportation costs.
Making a carpet is a rather long process, which consists of several stages and involves the use of special automated equipment and manual labor. Previously, all carpets were made manually on various kinds of machines, which determined the high cost of such a product. The spread of technology has significantly reduced the duration of the carpet production process and reduced their cost. Handmade carpets, however, have not lost their popularity. Expensive and unique products have found their customers.
The master takes from one day to a month to make one carpet, depending on the density of the fabric and the compositional complexity of the pattern. At the same time, up to thirty multicolor carpets are made in an automated production in one shift, and more than 400 monochromatic products are made using the non-woven method. And yet, not a single such carpet can be compared in quality of performance and complexity of the pattern with a handicraft product, therefore, for obvious reasons, the cost of the latter is two to three times higher than the cost of carpet products made by industrial means.
There are several ways to manufacture carpet products using special equipment. The following methods were most widely used: tufting (or igroproshivnoy), woven, needle-punched and patchwork (wicker). Each of these production methods has its own advantages and features.
The most popular is the tufting method. It is most often used in the manufacture of carpeting. When using this method, a non-woven or woven base is sewn with pile threads using a special machine that looks like a sewing machine and differs from it only in the number of needles and the presence of a hook. A wide range of carpeting is achieved by changing the density of the pile, the distance between the needles and patterns.
The woven method is the most sophisticated technology in carpet weaving. The threads of the pile and the threads of the weft and warp are woven simultaneously, which allows you to create a one-piece design. The base of such a carpet does not peel, does not deform, and retains its original appearance for a long time. It takes a lot of time and effort to make a woven carpet, so the cost of products in this case is quite high. In the needle-punched method, needles are used without holes for threads with serrations which, when moving, entangle the fibers of the thread in a single web. The middle of the product is a canvas that is punched with needles, and glue or a thin layer of latex acts as the base. Such carpets are cheaper than others, although they also have a high degree of wear resistance and are quite durable. Wicker technology involves the use of individual shreds that are sewn or secured in another way on the basis of.
Machine carpets can also differ in the type of pile, which is associated with the use of various technologies for processing yarn or pile of the finished product. There are two types of pile - frieze and velor. In the first case, the pile is obtained from high twisted and heat-treated yarn. The pile of such a coating is higher than that of velor, and more durable, since it is fixed by heat treatment. Pile freeze is most often found in synthetic products with a low pile density. Velor is a short looped pile, which is cut and short cut to the same length, which gives the coating a flat and smooth surface. For carpets, the pile length is about 8 mm, and for carpet materials - from 3 to 7 mm. Velor pile, as a rule, is found in woolen or high-density synthetic products.
Regardless of the method used, the manufacturing process of a carpet product includes several stages: development of a carpet product design, selection of materials, fiber dyeing, yarn production, carpet weaving, and product finishing. First, the designer makes a sketch of the future carpet, choosing the pattern and color scheme of the future product, as well as determining its shape and forming a technical drawing. The creation of a new pattern for a carpet of manual or machine production has certain limitations that are associated with the technological capabilities of production. Therefore, a carpet master or an artist-desinator should not only have a sense of color, aesthetic taste, be able to combine colors and design patterns, but also know the technological processes of carpet production and decorative techniques of carpet weaving.
Of great importance is the number of color tones of yarn, which is used in the manufacture of carpet. In some cases, in the mechanical production of carpet products, the number of colors is limited. The sketch of the future carpet is approved by the artistic council, which includes carpet experts, artists, technologists. Then a technical drawing is prepared - a cartridge, for which the drawing is transferred to a special paper, divided into cells, each of which corresponds to one pile unit.
If we are talking about a symmetrical pattern, then it is not developed in full size, but, as professionals say, in part of nature, and asymmetric in the full size of the finished carpet or nature. Of course, all this work is carried out using special computer programs. Further, according to the finished cartridge, cardboard is incised for the Jacquard machines.
The next stage of work is no less important - the selection of material, which determines the properties of the future flooring. Carpets can be made from natural and synthetic materials. In the first case, coarse and semi-coarse sheep wool of a spring haircut is white in color with a slight cream shade and light gray in color. This raw material perfectly retains its shape, does not crumple even after prolonged exposure, has good tintability, does not fall into lumps, and has the ability to withstand numerous bends during operation. Sometimes, instead of sheep’s wool, camel or coarse goat hair is used.
However, most of the carpet products in machine production are made from artificial fibers. In this case, the raw materials are natural organic substances: cotton fluff, casein, cellulose, cellulose acetate, as well as synthetic fibers, which are obtained by chemical synthesis from mineral raw materials carbon, ethylene, chlorine, phenol. Using artificial fibers, materials such as lavsan, acrylic, rayon, nylon, and several others are produced. These products are much cheaper than carpets made of natural materials, more practical, durable and do not require special care.
Synthetic and artificial fibers are often confused. They differ from each other in that synthetic fibers are made from high molecular weight products (resins), which are synthesized from pressure gauges. In contrast, artificial fibers are obtained by processing natural high molecular weight substances (cellulose). Synthetic fibers can be used for the manufacture of yarn in pure form or in combination with each other in different proportions, or in a mixture with natural wool. In addition to synthetic and artificial fibers, yarn made from linen, cotton, jute, hemp, sisal, coconut fiber, and cotonin can also be used for the production of carpets and carpets. True, in most cases they are used to create a fabric framework - the production of the main and weft yarn.
Both chemical fibers and natural materials that were selected for the manufacture of carpet yarn, are first pre-trained. For this, an intermittent or semi-continuous flow method is used. As a result, roving ribbons are obtained from raw materials. First of all, the raw materials are washed, and part of it is sent to the dyeing shop. At this stage, the fibers of the selected material for the production of carpet products are dyed in the required colors. The appearance of the finished carpet will depend on the quality of painting, the strength of the dyes, and the right color scheme, so this stage is so important for the entire production.
For carpeting use special light-resistant synthetic dyes (acid, vat, mordant, chrome, etc.), which are also resistant to wear and chemical agents. Dyes can be combined with each other and create a variety of color tones. At the same time, it is very important to take into account possible changes in shades after finishing and cleaning the raw materials. Technologists check several times the samples of colorings for compliance with their color and quality indicators established strict requirements and standards.
Pile yarn, which is dyed with various synthetic dyes, passes several tests for resistance to various influences, resistance to light, weather, water, dry cleaning, and friction. Chemical fibers can be dyed with ordinary or special dyes. The latter are used for dyeing fibers in a free state in carpet weaving or in the process of forming fibers in chemical plants (dyeing in bulk).
Polypropylene fiber consists only of carbon and hydrogen. Due to its simple molecular structure and chemical inertness, it cannot be stained with any traditional dye. Therefore, for artificial and synthetic fibers, the dyeing method is often used in the spinning process. That is, dyes are added to the fiber directly in the process of making yarn. This is carried out in the production of the fibers themselves, therefore, such raw materials are delivered to the carpet factory that are completely ready for use and do not require additional use of dyes. For this reason, propylene carpets have good consumer qualities, do not fade and do not wear out (as the paint penetrates directly into the fiber), unlike carpets that are painted in the usual way.
Carpet yarn in skeins is dyed on dyeing machines of the propeller system, which are made of stainless steel with mechanical loading and unloading. After dyeing, the yarn is squeezed in a centrifuge and laid out for drying in channel or sectional drying chambers. When the raw material is completely dry, it passes a quality check and enters the preparatory workshop for rewinding onto bobbins. After this, the raw materials are transported from the warehouse, dyeing or preparatory workshop by conveyor to loosening machines. From there, the material in oily form is sent to consumables and component stores and to mixed machines.
Using pneumatic equipment, the fiber is mixed and fed on automatic carts to card machines. On this equipment, the blended fiber is converted into a roving tape, which then enters the ring spinning machines to produce a low-yarn single pile yarn. True, this yarn is not used in its pure form in carpet production. In most cases, it undergoes trimming and torsion in two or three or more ends. Linen weft yarn has a high twist and is additionally impregnated with glue solution in special chambers.
A multi-thread yarn with a cotton base is pre-flaked, rewound on bobbins and subjected to a warp on tape or batch warping machines. Threads with a linen base are twisted at several ends, and then fed to the warping machines. For the threads of the flooring base, a special carbon monoxide-vigon yarn is used, which is necessarily sized.
The weaving method used in production is determined by the spinning method. In most cases, the base is first made, which consists of interwoven threads of flax and jute or cotton. The base resembles a lattice in structure. On it knots are tied, which end in loops. From these loops then make a pile. To do this, each loop is cut, resulting in two separate villi. Excess pile residues are removed, the carpet base with knots fixed on it is impregnated with latex - a natural-based adhesive composition. After which the product is sent for decoration.
This procedure includes shearing the pile surface of the carpeting with a split pile, mechanical shearing, cutting into pieces of a given length and packing the rolls. All carpet products with split pile are sheared on special machines, which allows you to get a flat pile (velor) surface and eliminates different heights of pile beams (which is inevitable when using tufted machines).
Shearing machines for carpets operate on the same principle as machines used for shearing fabrics. In both cases, the material is fed using an adjustable table of the shearing machine under the cutting spiral, and waste after shearing is removed by a suction device. But unlike similar fabric equipment, carpet shearing machines straighten the pressed pile before shearing to achieve a flat and clean surface. For this, pile-raising rollers are used, on the surface of which long needles are fixed.
Finishing gives the product a finished look, extends its life and performs, including, purely decorative functions. The pile of such a carpet can have various characteristics (height, density, material, thickness of the pile thread, number of colors), which directly affect its value. At the end, the carpet product is treated with antistatic and dirt-repellent impregnations, which can significantly increase its service life.
For the production of carpet products, the following equipment will be required: tufting machines for weaving, raschel machines (knitting machines), needle-punched equipment, shearing machines, pile-raising rollers, overlocks, latex formatters, coating printing machines, planing machines, etc. Some manufacturing companies buy Chinese equipment, which is characterized by relatively low prices. However, experts still advise to pay attention to the equipment of European manufacturers (mainly from the UK, Germany, Italy). Quality raw materials are also supplied from other countries (United Arab Emirates, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, etc.).
Both equipment and raw materials for the production of carpets are quite expensive. The minimum cost of their acquisition will amount to several million rubles. And this is not counting the cost of rent, wages to employees, expenses on advertising and product promotion. Investments in the organization of carpet production pay off within three years. Despite the fact that carpets and carpets are used throughout the year, in the winter (New Year holidays) and summer time there is a noticeable decline in sales.
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