Cottage cheese is a useful sour-milk product, which is obtained by fermenting fresh milk with the subsequent removal of whey from it and which contains valuable, easily digestible proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nutrients, vitamins and minerals necessary for humans.
Curd prepared in the traditional way is classified according to its fat content. According to GOST R, cottage cheese is fat-free, non-greasy (1.8%), classic (4-18%) and fat (19-23%). Accordingly, cottage cheese differs in calorie content. One hundred grams of fat cottage cheese contains more than 200 kilocalories, in bold cottage cheese - 160 Kcal, and in non-fat cottage cheese - about 80-85 Kcal. The greatest demand, as studies show, are fatty and bold types of cottage cheese. Fat-free and low-fat cottage cheese is somewhat inferior to them in taste, however, these types are used for the production of various cottage cheese products, including creams, cheeses, curd masses with various additives and fillers, curd desserts, etc.
Depending on the method of coagulation of milk proteins, cottage cheese is divided into acid and acid-rennet. Acid curd is prepared from skim milk by fermenting raw materials with special starter cultures. Under the influence of lactic acid, which is released during lactic acid fermentation when fermentation is introduced into milk, protein coagulates. Unlike acidic curd, in the development of acid-rennet curd, milk rennet (or pepsin) and fermentation of lactic acid bacteria are used to curl milk proteins.
So, cottage cheese is a nutritious healthy and tasty product that is suitable for both baby and diet food. Its production is cost-effective and quick-paying.
The "documentary" issue of organizing the production of cottage cheese
To open a cheese production, you must first choose the legal form of conducting your business and obtain the necessary permissions. You can register as an individual entrepreneur or open an LLC. In both cases there are advantages and disadvantages. The main difference between LLC and IP is the level of responsibility to creditors. If the LLC is declared bankrupt, and the company’s property is not enough to pay off its debts, the founder will be obliged to pay the creditors an amount not exceeding the authorized capital. An individual entrepreneur will repay the debts of his company at the expense of all his property. In this case, the administrative responsibility of the individual entrepreneur is lower than that of the LLC. Another significant difference is the tax system. When choosing a traditional taxation system, LLC will spend more on paying taxes than IP. In addition, the company will have to keep records, for which it will be necessary to hire an accountant. On the other hand, if you ever want to sell your share in the business, it will be easier to do this in the LLC format.
There is also an “image” nuance. As a rule, the trust on the part of partners is higher for the LLC, and not for the individual entrepreneur. Although at first you are unlikely to notice a difference. If you do not plan to work on a large scale from the very beginning, then experts advise you to give preference to IP, as it is easier and cheaper to register.
When registering, you will need to select the OKVED code. In our case, it is 08/18/2019 "Production of cottage cheese and cheese-curd products." When you have already found a suitable production facility, you will need to obtain permits from the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service (SES) and the fire department. To do this, you must provide a copy of the certificate of state registration of the enterprise, a copy of the taxpayer’s certificate, a lease with the owner of the premises or territory, a production flow chart, a list of equipment used at the facility, indicate the capacity of the facility, the number of employees and data on medical examinations, the plan of the rented premises, where the equipment is installed, the reconstruction project of the premises (when changing its initial functions) and the conclusion of the SES on the coordination of this project, asport on the ventilation system, the contract for carrying out disinfection, the inquiry statistics printing.
A production license also needs to be issued. To do this, a package of documents is submitted to the licensing organization, which includes applications of the established form, copies of constituent documents and a receipt on payment of state duty. After inspecting your workshop, a permit is issued with a validity period of at least five years.
Since cottage cheese is a product of the dairy industry, its certification is also mandatory immediately after the start of your production. OKP 922290 Cottage cheese (922291 Cottage cheese from 0.1% to 9.0% fat content, 922292 Cottage cheese from 10.0% to 17.0% fat content, 922293 Cottage cheese from 18.0% and more fat content is issued for domestic cheese) 922294 Cottage cheese, 922295 Cottage cheese for baby food). This document confirms the quality and safety of your cottage cheese and is issued either for products manufactured in series (for a period of not more than three years), or for a batch of cottage cheese (for the shelf life of products that are included in this batch). If you do not have experience in issuing certificates and you are not well versed in these matters, it is best to turn to a specialized intermediary company for help. So you save a lot of effort and time. To obtain a certificate, you will need to prepare the following documents: certification application, contract, constituent documentation, label layouts, phytosanitary registration certificate, veterinary certificate.
The cottage cheese you produce must comply with the established GOST: GOST R 52096-2003 “Cottage cheese. Technical conditions ”(note, this standard does not apply to a product enriched with vitamins, micro- and macrocells, probiotic cultures and prebiotic substances), GOST 31534-2012“ Cottage cheese is grained. Technical conditions. "
If you care about the quality of your products, then from the very beginning you should take care of creating your own production laboratory, equipped with all the necessary equipment to control the quality of the raw materials supplied to you. The requirements for the organization of production microbiological laboratories are given in the “Methodological recommendations for the organization of industrial microbiological control at dairy enterprises”, approved on February 7, 2008. The production laboratory of dairy enterprises and the organization of its activities must comply with the sanitary rules of SP 18.08.2019-99 “Safety work with microorganisms of the III-IV pathogenic ™ groups and helminths ”, SanPiN 08/18/2019.551-96“ Production of milk and milk s products "and the" Guidelines on the organization of the production of microbial control in dairy establishments »MP 18.08.2019.2327-08.
Of course, the organization of the laboratory will require additional and tangible costs, but they will quickly pay off if you care about the reputation of your company. In addition, it makes sense to think about the development and approval of their own technical conditions for products.
Cottage cheese production workshop
In SanPiN 08/18/2019.551-96 “Production of milk and dairy products” (approved by the resolution of the State Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation of October 4, 1996 N 23) all the requirements for the territory for the construction of the workshop, production and auxiliary premises, water supply and sewage, lighting, heating, ventilation, environmental protection, to technological equipment, inventory, utensils, their sanitation, as well as to all technological processes. First of all, the premises that you rent or acquire must have enough space (the area of the main workshop should be at least 30 square meters). Even if you do not plan to open your own laboratory from the very beginning, you need to
Mandatory availability of tap water, sewage, electricity and ventilation systems. The water used for the workshop may be artesian, but must comply with the requirements of drinking water according to GOST 2874-82. The walls in the workshop should be tiled to a height of more than two meters, the floors should be non-slippery, waterproof and resistant to acids. The walls of household, auxiliary and storage rooms are painted in bright colors.
The cost of developing a project during the construction of a mini-factory from scratch will be from 70 thousand rubles. Such a project, as a rule, includes a general explanatory note, architectural and construction solutions, a master plan and transport, engineering equipment, networks and systems, technological solutions, and environmental protection provisions.
Cottage cheese production technology
There are two main methods for the production of cottage cheese, depending on the method of clot formation: acidic and rennet-acid. The first method is used to prepare low-fat and low-fat cottage cheese of delicate consistency. In this case, acid coagulation of proteins is carried out by fermenting milk with bacteria. Accordingly, in the second way, in which a clot is formed due to the direct influence of rennet and, accordingly, the loss of fat in serum is reduced, cottage cheese of medium and high fat content is obtained.
The technological process for the production of cottage cheese in the traditional way includes the following stages: milk reception, milk normalization to the required state, milk purification and pasteurization, milk cooling to the fermentation temperature, introduction of fermentation and rennet in milk, milk fermentation, clot cutting, whey separation, cooling cottage cheese, packaging, packaging in containers and storage of finished products.
Milk acceptance is carried out by a trained and certified laboratory assistant using equipment and methods in accordance with GOST 26809-86 “Milk and dairy products. Acceptance rules, sampling methods and preparation of samples for analysis ”, GOST 28283-89“ Method of organoleptic evaluation of smell and taste ”. As a raw material for the preparation of cottage cheese in the traditional way, fresh whole skim milk with an acidity of not higher than 20 ° T is used, which is pasteurized at a temperature of 79-80 ° C with an exposure of 20-30 seconds. It is extremely important to maintain this temperature regime, since this is the main condition for the high quality of the finished product. At low temperatures, the resulting clot is not dense enough, because whey proteins almost completely go into whey, and the yield of cottage cheese is significantly reduced. With increasing temperature, the denaturation of whey proteins increases, as a result of which the intensity of the separation of serum decreases and the yield of cottage cheese increases. To increase the fat content of the product with a separate method, pasteurized cream is added to it.
Pasteurized milk is cooled to the fermentation temperature. This temperature directly depends on the season: in the spring-summer period, milk is cooled to 28-30 ° C, and in the cold season to 30-32 ° C. Then, the chilled milk is sent to the bathtubs to make cottage cheese. Ferment for the production of cottage cheese is done on pure cultures of mesophilic lactic streptococci. It is added to milk in an amount of 1-5%. Duration of ripening is from 6 to 8 hours. To accelerate this process, 2.5% of the starter culture prepared on cultures of mesophilic streptococcus and 2.5% of thermophilic lactic streptococcus are added to milk. In the warm season, fermentation with the accelerated method is carried out at a temperature of 35 ° C, and in the cold - up to 38 ° C. In this case, you can reduce the duration of fermentation of milk by 2-3.5 hours.
To improve the quality of the product, experts advise using a direct method of preparing yeast in sterilized milk, which allows you to reduce the dose of yeast to 1%.
When using the acid-rennet method for the production of cottage cheese in the traditional way, immediately after adding the starter to the milk, a 40% solution of calcium chloride (400 g of anhydrous salt per 1 ton of milk) prepared in boiled water at a temperature of 40-45 ° С is also added there. Thanks to calcium chloride, pasteurized milk can again form a sufficiently dense clot that separates well whey under the action of rennet. At the next stage, rennet (or pepsin) is added to milk in the form of a 1% solution at the rate of 1 gram per 1 ton of milk. Previously, the enzyme is dissolved in boiled water at a temperature of 35 ° C. A solution of pepsin to increase its activity in advance (at least five hours before use) is prepared on acid clarified serum. To speed up the process of preparing cottage cheese, the milk is fermented to an acidity of 32-35 ° T in special tanks and only then pumped into the curd bath. An enzyme and calcium chloride are added to the raw materials thus prepared.
The fermentation process using the acidic method takes about six hours, and with acid rennet - 4-6 hours. The use of active acid-forming starter culture reduces this time by 1.5-2 times - up to 3-4 hours. The degree of readiness of the clot can be determined by the level of its acidity. For low-fat cottage cheese, this indicator should be 75-80 ° T, and for fatty and bold-looking - 58-60 ° T. In addition, the clot is evaluated visually. Normally, it should be sufficiently dense and at the break have even smooth edges with a clear greenish serum. It is very important to determine the end of ripening in time, otherwise you will get an acidic sticky smearing mass, and not a delicious grainy curd.
To accelerate the extraction of serum, the finished clot is cut using special wire knives into cubes with a face size of 2 cm. When using the acid-rennet method of production, the cut clot is left for another hour for intensive isolation of the serum, then it is subjected to self-pressing and pressing. At this stage, the diced cubes are stacked in coarse calico or dacron bags with a volume of 7-9 kg, filled with more than half. Then the bags are tied and stacked in several rows on the press trolley. Under the influence of its own mass, serum is released from the clot. This process, called self-pressing, is carried out in the workshop at a temperature of no more than 16 ° C and takes about an hour. The readiness of the mass is determined by eye: the surface of the clot loses its luster and becomes dull. After that, it is pressed until ready. Periodically, the bags with cottage cheese are shaken several times and transferred. Pressing should be carried out at an air temperature of 3-6 ° C. Higher temperatures increase acidity and spoilage of the finished product. After pressing, the cottage cheese is sent to coolers, then it is packed up on automatic machines in containers of the required volume. Cottage cheese is packed in small packaging in the form of bars weighing 0.25; 0.5 and 1 kg, wrapped in parchment and / or cellophane, bags, glasses from polymeric materials. The finished product, according to TU 9222-180-11419785-04, is stored in sales for no more than 72 hours at a temperature of 2-8 ° C and an air humidity of 80-85%.
Workshop equipment and staff
For the production of cottage cheese, a whole range of equipment is used for the reception, cooling, processing, storage and transportation of raw materials. So, for example, the milk received is stored in tanks - metal containers, pumped using pumps, received using milk meters (weights), processed by milk separators, pasteurizers, filters, etc.
The main part of the line includes cottage producers with pressing baths, cottage cheese baths with water heating, and plants for pressing and cooling cottage cheese. Among the coolers, two-cylinder designs are considered the most successful.
In addition to this equipment, packaging and packing machines, equipment for storage and transportation of finished products will also be required.
The minimum cost of such equipment is 2450000 rubles, not including the cost of transportation and commissioning.
To work at the mini-factory will require a staff of 6-10 workers. All of them must undergo a medical examination, training and be certified in hygiene training, have valid medical books. The procedure for hygienic preparation and certification was approved by Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 229 of June 29, 2000. The frequency of medical examinations, a list of medical specialists, laboratory and functional tests, as well as a list of contraindications to work are given in Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation No. 302n dated 12 April 2011
Кроме того, вам потребуется бухгалтер и менеджер по сбыту.
Перспективы, расходы и доходы
В целом, конкуренция в сфере переработки молока и, в частности, производства кисломолочной продукции оценивается как средняя. По мнению экспертов, во многих регионах это направление перспективно и заслуживает внимания.
Общий объем инвестиций в создание мини-завода по производству творога и других творожных продуктов оценивается в сумму от 5500000 рублей. Сроки окупаемости составляют не менее двух лет при стабильной работе и выполнении планов по производству и сбыту готовой продукции. В целом, рентабельность производства в творожной отрасли составляет 7-10 %.
Примерно в такую же сумму (5, 5-6 млн. рублей) обойдется готовый бизнес по производству пастеризованного молока и кефирного напитка, фасованных в полиэтиленовые пакеты, сметаны и творога, фасованных в пластиковую тару, адыгейского сыра, упакованного в пластиковую тару. Объемы такого производства составляют 3000 л молока (приемка, очистка, переработка с производством и хранением вышеперечисленных продуктов). С одной стороны, готовый бизнес представляется более выгодным вариантом, в первую очередь, из-за уже налаженных связей с поставщиками, торговыми сетями, отдельными магазинами, сформированного штата работников… Однако если вы собираетесь приобрести уже функционирующий бизнес, желательно предварительно проконсультироваться со специалистом, который сможет оценить все риски и перспективы.Sysoeva Liliya (c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides