Halvah is called various types of confectionery products, which are made from fried and crushed kernels of oilseeds or nuts, mixed with caramel mass, whipped with a foaming substance. It is thanks to the latter that halva has a characteristic layered fibrous structure. Halvah is of several types, which differ depending on what kind of oil-containing seeds or kernels it consists of. In particular, on sale you can find sunflower, peanut and soy halva. Halva, which is made from sesame seeds, is called tahini. Halva based on oil seeds and nuts includes three main components: protein mass (paste from oil seeds and nuts), caramel mass (sugar and molasses), honey (this ingredient is not used in industrial halva) and a foaming agent.
The last ingredient is licorice root, soap root (thistle root), marshmallow root and egg white. Sometimes other components are added to halva - flavors, colorants and flavorings. Mostly natural ingredients are used, such as vanilla, cocoa powder, chocolate, pistachios. The protein mass for tahini halva is made from ground sesame, and for sunflower - from ground sunflower seeds. Peanut halva is made from ground peanuts. There are also combined types of halva - for example, tahini-peanut. Walnut halva, produced from almonds, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, etc., is less common than other types of this confectionery product, which is due to the more complex and expensive production technology and, consequently, the higher cost of production.
The halva production process includes several main stages that are common for confectionery products of this kind: preparing grated masses, obtaining caramel mass, preparing a soap root extract, knocking down a caramel mass with soap root extract, kneading halva, packaging and packaging of finished products. So, in the production of halva, grated masses are first prepared. They are based on finely ground oil-containing seeds of sesame, sunflower, peanuts, etc. To prepare the grated mass, the seeds are first thoroughly cleaned from the peel and various impurities. Removing the seed coat in professional jargon is called collapse. The peeled kernels are freed from the shell, undergo heat treatment (frying) and are crushed (ground to a homogeneous mass). The technology for producing grated masses may vary slightly, depending on which crops are used in this case. So, for example, in the manufacture of tahini mass, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the shell of sesame seeds adjoins the kernel quite tightly. It is separated much more difficult than, for example, in sunflower seeds. Therefore, to facilitate this procedure, the peeled sesame seeds are first soaked for 0.5-3 hours in containers with a capacity of 100-1500 liters filled with water heated to a temperature of 50 ° C. Then the shell is separated (collapsed) from the seeds on continuous machines. Separation occurs as a result of friction of the seeds on the walls of the tank body. The collapse process is based on a difference in the density of shells and nuclei. The core, which contains a sufficiently large amount of fat, has a density of 1070 kg / m3, and the shell, which consists mainly of fiber, has a significantly lower density, 1500 kg / m3. Seeds, including kernels and shell, are placed in a solution of sodium chloride with a density of 1120-1150 kg / m3, which is called straw. In straw, because of the difference in density, the nucleus floats, and the shell of the seed settles at the bottom. In order to separate them, batch or continuous machines are used. Then the cores are thoroughly washed from salt, and water is removed from them by centrifugation. At the next stage, the cores undergo heat treatment - they are fried at high temperature. This is necessary to reduce the moisture content of the kernels, as well as to give them a pleasant taste and aroma.
Roasting is carried out in braziers, in dryers (mine, wind), in aerial chutes, in boilers with mixers, etc. The temperature of the heat carrier depends on the design of the apparatus used for roasting, and can range from 150 to 300 ° C. To fry sesame seeds, experts recommend using mild modes - not more than 150 ° C.
The fried seeds are cooled and crushed simultaneously using disc, roller or pin mills. The process of preparing protein mass from sunflower is somewhat simpler. First, sunflower seeds are peeled, then they are dried and crumble. Shells of seeds otvevyvayutsya on the seeds, the kernels are cleaned under water from the remnants of the shells. The peeled seeds are dried, fried and crushed. To obtain a peanut mass, the peanut kernels are fried, the film is removed from them (after heat treatment it is removed much faster and easier), and the nuts are crushed.
Simultaneously with the manufacture of the protein mass, a caramel mass is prepared. Caramel mass is often used for the production of various confectionery products, but special requirements are imposed on the mass used for halva production. First of all, it should not solidify upon cooling, maintain its ductility, and be resistant to crystallization. In order for the syrup to possess all these properties, more molasses is added to it. The ratio is 1.5-2 parts of molasses per one part of sugar. The syrup is boiled in special vacuum devices until the solids content in it is 94-95%. In this case, the mass will be easier to stray with foaming. In addition, subsequent kneading of halva is greatly facilitated.
As already mentioned above, the foaming agent gives the characteristic layered fiber structure of halva. As the latter, the most commonly used is a decoction of soap root (the root of a plant called soap dish). This plant component contains up to 5% saponin surfactant. First, the soapwort roots are washed in running water, and then cut into small pieces. They are boiled 3-4 times to get a decoction. Then the broth is filtered and boiled to the state of the extract with a relative density of 1.05. Soap root extract in an amount of 2% of the total product mass is introduced into the caramel mass in closed digesters. At the same time, the caramel mass is knocked down for 20 minutes at temperatures up to 110 ° C.
Finally, all components, including protein mass and whipped mass from soap root extract and caramel mass, are mixed together on dough mixing machines. The amount of protein mass is about 60%, and caramel - 40%. At this stage, flavors and flavors are added to the mass. Kneading, carried out at a temperature of about 65 ° C, is necessary for uniform distribution of protein and caramel masses, as a result of which a layered fibrous structure of halva is formed. In some cases, the finished halva can be sent for additional processing (for example, cutting into small pieces, after which the small piece halva is glazed with chocolate). Then halva in a plastic state is weighed and packaged in boxes that are covered with parchment or parchment, in cans, in packs of greaseproof paper or cellophane. Packaging is done using special equipment. First, the bowl with halva is installed in the lift, which then conveys the halva to the dispenser of the packaging machine. Often, halva is packed up to 300 grams in boxes of PVC film, which are then closed with heat-sealable foil. These boxes are then stacked in a corrugated box and sent to the warehouse.
The storage conditions of the finished product are subject to special requirements. Halvah cannot be stored for a long time, since during storage its surface is moistened and fat is leaked (the higher the amount of reducing substances in the mass, the shorter the shelf life of the finished product). In warehouses, the relative humidity should not exceed 70-75%, and the air temperature should not exceed 18 ° C. The room should be clean, dry and well ventilated. Most types of halva have a shelf life of up to 1.5 months, subject to all conditions.
Tahini halva and glazed chocolates are stored for a little longer - up to 2 months. The halva production workshop consists of three sections: the seed preparation workshop, the production section, and the packaging and packaging section for finished products. Its area should be about 250 square meters. meters. The main requirements are the availability of electricity, hot and cold water, sewage and heat supply.
So, the main ingredients for the production of halva of the most common type - sunflower, are: molasses, sugar, sunflower seeds, soap root (licorice root extract), flavoring and aromatic substances (vanillin, cocoa powder, raisins, etc.). For the production of halva, you will need special equipment. On sale you can find both Russian-made equipment and lines from Western manufacturing companies. The minimum cost of an automated line of European production is 4 million rubles. A semi-automatic line from Russian companies will cost at least 1.2 million rubles. The productivity of the line of the latter type is slightly less than 1000 kg halva for an 8-hour shift.
It includes the following equipment: a rush machine, a windmill machine, a hammer mill, a calibrator, plants for roasting and cooling seeds and nuts, a caramelizer, and bathtubs for mixing halva. Using such equipment, it is possible to produce halva of several types: sunflower halva without or with various toppings (including raisins and peanuts), peanut halva, vanilla, glazed in chocolate, etc. You will also need to purchase a line for packaging finished products. In foreign equipment, this line is usually included. The packaging line includes a packaging machine, a labeling machine and a thermal transfer printer. The average cost of such a line is 1 million rubles.
To work in the workshop with such production volumes, a staff of 5-6 people will be needed: technologist, foreman and workers. Finished products are sold through regional retail chains, as well as through wholesale companies that supply their products to individual grocery stores.
The retail cost of halva is from 100 rubles per kilogram. Wholesale halva is sold at a price of 50 rubles per kilogram. The cost of halva production at average prices for raw materials in the regions is 25-30 rubles per kilogram.
Thus, with the sale of more than 20 thousand kg of halva per month, the revenue of the manufacturer will be more than 1 million rubles. With investments of about 3 million rubles. the net profit of the enterprise reaches 150 thousand rubles. per month. The project payback period with such initial data is 1.5-2 years.
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