Kvass is a traditional Russian drink with a volume fraction of ethyl alcohol of not more than 1.2%, which is prepared as a result of incomplete alcohol and lactic fermentation of wort. Kvass production is a profitable business with high profitability (this figure is at least 100%). It requires a relatively small investment, which will more than pay off in the first season. Kvass belongs to different categories of drinks, but, as a rule, it is most often allocated to a group of drinks to quench your thirst. Kvass is a seasonal product and successfully competes in the hot season with mineral water and even beer. According to surveys conducted by the Romir research center in 2008-2009, 27% of the respondents preferred kvass among other soft drinks. Only tea and mineral water are ahead of him, and the closest competitors of kvass are coffee and juice.
Depending on consumer preferences, there are three main groups of drinks that are sold at retail and each of which includes kvass. The first group includes sweet non-alcoholic drinks saturated with carbon dioxide. The main competitors of kvass in this group are carbonated drinks with flavors. The second group includes healthy drinks. In addition to kvass, this includes mineral water, juices, fruit drinks, etc. The third group consists of fermented drinks with a dense malt flavor, where beer and other traditional drinks were the main competitors to kvass. The main reason for the gradual increase in the popularity of kvass compared to other drinks used to quench thirst is the optimal combination of price and utility factor. Kvass does not contain artificial additives and dyes, GMOs, costs no more than mineral water and, especially, juices. All this provides a stable demand for kvass in the hot season.
The most widely used bread kvass is a dark brown drink with a pleasant taste and a characteristic aroma of rye bread. Bread kvass is produced by combined unfinished alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation. Most enterprises use kvass wort concentrate as the main raw material for its production. In addition, sugar is used in the form of white sugar syrup, drinking water, a combination of yeast and cultures of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The process of production of bread kvass consists of several stages: preparation of white sugar syrup, preparation of wort, preparation of sourdough cultures of microorganisms, fermentation of wort, blending of kvass. The production of white sugar syrup for kvass is carried out according to the same technology that is used in the production of carbonated soft drinks. It is obtained cold or hot.
In the first case, the syrup is prepared by dissolving sugar in water, followed by filtration through appropriate filters or by disinfection in a stream. Although the quality of white sugar syrup will be higher in this case, there is a danger of microbiological infection. After dissolving sugar, experts advise passing the resulting syrup through stainless steel mesh traps with a decreasing hole diameter, and then through a frame filter press, inlet or candle filter. The diameter of the filter through which the syrup is passed at the end should be 30 microns. For the production of expensive drinks, the supporting membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.45 μm are used as the final stage of filtration. A more widespread method for the preparation of sugar syrup in a hot way. In this case, syrup boilers with heating, a stirrer and an exhaust pipe in the upper part of the tank are used for cooking syrup. First, a predetermined amount of water is measured, which is then supplied to the boiler and heated to a temperature of 55-60 ° C. With stirring, sugar is poured into the water, after which the water is heated to boiling point. Sugar syrup boils for half an hour. At the same time, foam is removed from its surface in order to avoid the multiplication of mucus-forming bacteria. Then the hot syrup is sent for filtration through a bag mesh or fabric filter. Also, frame filters are used for these purposes. Then the filtered solution is cooled in counter-current tubular or plate heat exchangers using brine or water to a temperature of 10-20 ° C. Ready-made syrup with a solids content of 60-65% is stored in collections with a measuring glass. In the production of kvass, white sugar syrup is used to make kvass wort and blend the drink. In the first case, a certain amount of kvass must concentrate and sugar syrup are dissolved in water.
The most technologically difficult stage in the production of kvass is the preparation of the starter culture of microorganisms, which is carried out in the laboratory, in the department of pure cultures of microorganisms and already directly in the kvass production. To accumulate the required biomass of yeast and lactic acid bacteria, pure cultures of leavened yeast and lactic acid bacteria are used. Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of about 30 ° C. In order to stop the fermentation process, the wort is cooled to a temperature no higher than 7 ° C and maintained at this temperature for 30-60 minutes. Then the precipitate is removed from the fermented wort, and the wort is blended by adding white sugar syrup to it to achieve the standard dry matter content. Ready kvass is bottled in insulated tankers, barrels or plastic bottles. In order to preserve the taste and aroma inherent in fresh kvass and to avoid losses of carbon dioxide, kvass is recommended to be bottled in isobaric conditions.
And in the process of preparing kvass, and at the stage of its bottling, it is very important to strictly observe all hygiene standards. Barrels and vats that are used in production are carefully steamed; only boiled water is used to make kvass. All this is necessary in order to avoid the appearance of butyric acid fermentation, which leads to spoilage of the product. Also, special requirements are imposed on the organization of storage of finished kvass in warehouses. This should be a well-ventilated room where a favorable temperature is maintained. The shelf life of this "live" kvass is two days at a temperature of 12 ° C. In special packaging and subject to all requirements, kvass can be stored for 2-3 months, but if the storage regime in the product is violated, decomposition processes will soon begin.
To organize the production of kvass, it is necessary to draw up a number of documents. First of all, in the constituent documents (registration certificate) of an individual entrepreneur or in the charter of an enterprise, if it is a legal entity, it is necessary to indicate among the permitted activities the production and sale (wholesale and retail) of kvass. In order to obtain permission for the work of the kvass workshop, it is necessary to confirm that the premises you have chosen comply with the standards of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Fire and the water for the manufacture of kvass meets the standards of SNiP. First, the entrepreneur sends a notification to Rospotrebnadzor, and then receives permission for production or services. To do this, he must provide the production program of his company with a list of assortment. After the commission inspects the premises and confirms their compliance with sanitary standards, a sanitary-epidemiological (hygienic) conclusion is issued. Then you will need to get the same conclusion on the products, which gives the right to produce a trial batch of kvass. A test batch is sent for research to the laboratory, and if its quality meets the requirements, the Rospotrebnadzor issues a sanitary and epidemiological report.
A quality certificate (or declaration of conformity) is issued subject to the availability of technical conditions for the enterprise (technical requirements that the product must satisfy) and technological instructions. You will need a quality certificate if you intend to deliver your products to stores. TU and TI are developed by special organizations. The cost of their services averages 10 thousand rubles. per document. Instead of TU, you can use GOST, but in any case, TI will have to be developed by yourself. Of course, it is quite possible to start developing technological instructions on your own, but if you do not have experience in preparing such documents, then it is unlikely to save.
For the production of thousands of liters of kvass, 2.5 cubic meters of water, 50 kg of sugar, 28 kg of kvass wort concentrate and other ingredients will be required. Electricity consumption is 74 kW per specified production volume. According to the manufacturers of live fermentation kvass, kvass concentrate will cost 100 rubles / kg. The cost of a kilogram of granulated sugar is 20-25 rubles., 50 grams of yeast cost up to 10 rubles. Add to this various aromatic additives (mint, cherry leaf, etc.) worth about 50 rubles. Total cost of raw materials for the manufacture of 100 liters of kvass is about 700 rubles. Three workers will be needed to produce 100 liters of kvass. Six people work in the production of 180 liters of products. The average salary of an employee is 15 thousand rubles. plus mandatory payments from the payroll. According to various estimates, the average cost of one liter of kvass is about 10 rubles. Equipment costs include the purchase of a fermentation apparatus (17 thousand rubles) and additional capacities (8 thousand rubles for two units). Kvass, which is sold to stores, is usually bottled in PET bottles with a capacity of 1.5 and 2 liters. 86 liters of kvass are 57 bottles of 1.5 liters. The cost of packaging is 5 rubles. per PET bottle, 0.5 rub. for the cover, 1.5-2 rubles per color label. The retail cost of quality kvass in one and a half liter bottles is about 45-50 rubles. The profit from the sale of at least 120 one and a half liter bottles of kvass per day at a price of 50 rubles for each will be about 100 thousand rubles. per month.
However, most of the profit for kvass producers comes not from sales through retail chains, but from mobile kvass bottling points. The cost of a liter of soft drink in this case will be slightly higher, since in such kvass, unlike sold through stores, kvass wort concentrate is added. In addition, at such small points of sale, in most cases, kvass is bought in glasses (two bottling options are in small and large glasses with a capacity of 0.25 and 0.5 ml, respectively), and not in bottles. The cost of one-time packaging is also taken into account when determining the retail price of kvass.
The minimum monthly profit of such a retail outlet is from 35 thousand rubles. This amount directly depends on the correct location of the mobile point (near public transport stops, in the city center with high traffic, in markets, near shopping centers, etc.), as well as on the weather (the higher the air temperature, the more sales will be )
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