Own business: lace production

* The calculations use the average data for the World. The history of lace decoration for many centuries, and the popularity of lace products remains consistently high. Lace is used in the manufacture of clothing, underwear, home textiles, bedding. Every year, world-famous fashion houses release collections of lace clothes, and lace is periodically declared the trend of the season. All this tells us that lace manufacturers do not remain without earnings. Initially, lace was hand-made, but since this labor was excessively labor-consuming and had low productivity, the first lace-making machine was invented in the 19th century, and since then the equipment has only been improved, product quality has improved, and production speed has increased. Machine-made laces come in four types: bassin, crocheted, woven and embroidered. False lace is a type of woven lace that is made using a multi-member woven machine with a jacquard mechanism. Jacquard machine allows you to make lace smooth and embossed, with various geometric or floral patterns. Lace can be 10 to 120 millimeters wide. Cotton, viscose and textured yarn of low and medium sizes (from 10 to 100) is used as raw material for bassoon lace; braided lace from yarn of high numbers does not happen. Braided lace is the most durable of all machine lace. In appearance they resemble hand-made ones, and some patterns are indistinguishable from old Russian lace woven on bobbins.

The modern jacquard machine meets the highest requirements of lace manufacturers, is equipped with computer control and has ample opportunities for the implementation of design ideas. The latest generation equipment has a new patterning system, which is based on the traditional patterned comb system. Rachelle machines are manufactured in Europe and China. Equipment can also be found on the secondary market in Russia, but the choice is small. The best solution would be to contact manufacturers directly, some of them have their representative offices in Russia. The cost of such equipment manufactured in Europe starts from a million rubles. Chinese machines are cheaper (from 600 thousand rubles).

Knitted lace is made on warp knitting lace machines. Knitted lace is thinner than bassoon. The lace pattern runs along the ground of square or hexagonal cells. Such soil is called tulle. Knitting lace patterns can be very complex. Typically, the pattern is a floral or geometric ornament. The width of the knitted lace can be from 10 to 200 millimeters. Knitted lace is elastic, stretches well. Most of all proposals for the sale of warp knitting machines are made by Chinese suppliers. Price - from 500 thousand rubles.

Embroidered machines are used for the production of embroidered lace. The basis is taken of tulle, knitwear or nylon fabric. Embroidery is carried out with thin artificial or synthetic threads. Initially, a wide web is embroidered, which is then cut into strips of the desired width. Embroidered lace is most often used for finishing knitted underwear, blouses, dresses.

There are two varieties of embroidered lace: aerial embroidery and sewing. Aerial embroidery resembles Richelieu embroidery in appearance, and sewing is a narrow strip of fabric on which the pattern is embroidered with satin stitches with punctures.

Embroidery machines cost from 10 thousand dollars. The simplest machine is able to embroider a simple pattern on a napkin or handkerchief. To create exquisite lace you will need equipment costing from 25-30 thousand dollars.

Woven lace is made on weaving lace machines. Types of woven lace - valenciennes, raspberries, breton, brabant, torshon, etc. The quality of the lace depends on the class of the machine and the thickness of the yarn. The best woven lace is made from fine yarn. The lace fabric made on a weaving machine can be very wide and can be used for sewing blouses and dresses. As raw materials, as a rule, smooth nylon tulle, cotton fabric of different colors, viscose yarn, nylon yarn are used.

To open a lace production workshop, a premises with a production area of ​​at least 30 square meters will be required. The optimal ceiling height is at least 4 meters. In addition to the workshop where lace will be made, it is necessary to equip a warehouse of raw materials (threads, tulle) and a warehouse of finished products, as well as a recreation area for employees.

The industrial premises should be dry, well ventilated, equipped with an air conditioning system, which is absolutely necessary in the summer, as the machines heat up the air very much.

Lighting in the workshops for the production of lace can be used combined: artificial and natural. According to sanitary standards, the luminous flux should come from at least 60 percent from a natural source. However, direct sunlight should not be allowed on work surfaces. The best option would be a room with windows facing north or northeast. For artificial lighting, fluorescent lamps are used.

When the equipment is in operation, noise and vibration inevitably occur. They are best absorbed by the concrete floor. The floor is usually tiled because it is easy to clean. Machines, as a rule, operate from a network voltage of 380 volts. The electrical wiring should be hidden in the boxes, and the sockets used in industrial production should be closed.

In order to ensure fire safety on the windows should not be lattices. The exception is those cases where the presence of gratings is caused by objective necessity and agreed with the inspecting authorities, but even then the gratings must be hinged, and the key to them must be in an easily accessible place.

Renting a room in the city center makes no sense. Outskirts with good access roads are better for locating your own production. The cost of renting premises with suitable parameters in the regions starts from 500 rubles per square meter.

The production process begins with the work of the designer (although most machines have template schemes, and for starters you can use them). A pattern is invented, and then introduced into the equipment program. On old lace machines, which, by the way, are still used in some European lace factories, the pattern is programmed with punch cards, after which the masters manually thread the needles, sometimes this process takes more than a month. Modern equipment allows you to make embroidery programs pretty quickly.

Productivity of the car depends on its characteristics and the set lace width. On average, about 1000 meters of lace can be produced per shift.

Machines are usually equipped with an automatic lace winding system, so additional devices for picking goods are not required.

A supplier of lace yarn can be found online. Equipment supply companies sometimes also offer thread wholesale. Many manufacturers prefer to order yarn from China. With large volumes of purchases, this is the most profitable option. The cost of a kilogram of thin cotton thread is about 200 rubles.

Modern machines for the production of lace is a very complicated technique, which is why purchases from Chinese manufacturers, although they are the cheapest option, can lead to a lot of difficulties, since it is not easy to find specialists who can set up equipment and train them. It is easier to turn to Russian companies specializing in the supply of machinery for textile production. They can offer after-sales service of the machines and hold the necessary consultations. To service one machine, 1-2 people are enough.

When working in two shifts, one machine can make a profit of about 10 thousand rubles. As in any other production, it is important to find reliable markets in the lace production: chains of textile and accessories stores, clothing factories, underwear, ateliers.

Natalya Merkulova

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