Own business: mosaic production

* The calculations use the average data for the World 2 500 000 ₽

Minimum starting capital

70%

Profitability

from 12 months

Payback

from 2 000 000 ₽

Cost of mosaic equipment

A mosaic is an image or pattern made of particles that are homogeneous or of different shades from different materials (stone, smalt, ceramic tile). The material, which usually has a square shape, from which this image is laid out, is also called a mosaic. The finer the detail, the clearer and more realistic the image can be laid out of it.

Where is the mosaic applied

It is used for interior and exterior decorating, for decorating walls and floors, as well as for landscape design. A large number of various materials are used for the production of mosaics. Each type of raw material from which the mosaic is made today has its own characteristic features, due to which it becomes suitable for use in some conditions and is not suitable for use in others.

In most cases, inexpensive mosaics are made of ceramics. Ceramic mosaics resembles in appearance and properties ordinary ceramic tiles. The difference is only in size. In the process of manufacturing ceramic tiles, low-porous ceramics are necessarily used. This material is characterized by high frost resistance and low water absorption.

Special glaze can also be used, which is necessary to prevent the formation of a water stone on the mosaic surface, as well as preserve the color of the product even under the influence of aggressive environment and water. In the process of mosaic production, a wide variety of natural stone can be used, starting with ordinary natural tuff and ending with rare rocks of jasper and marble.

Features of manufacturing different types of mosaics

Natural stone has no limitations in texture either - during the production process it is polished, sanded or aged. In the latter case, the edges of the tiles have a smoother texture and muted colors. Inexpensive mosaic made of artificial granite. This material, on the one hand, has a natural origin, and on the other hand, is produced using modern technologies, during which granite is mixed with broken glass. This mosaic is characterized by high strength (like natural granite) and unusual effects (like artificial materials).

A significant part of the expensive mosaic is made from smalt. This material has been known since antiquity, but, of course, the modern technology for the production of such mosaics has undergone significant changes today. Glass used in production undergoes special processing with various metal oxides, and then heats up to high temperature. As a result of such procedures, glass acquires various physical and chemical properties - impact resistance, resistance to low temperatures, resistance to various aggressive environments. Smalt, like natural stone, does not have a single color.

Even in one batch, mosaic pieces can have different shades, which creates unusual effects on a large surface. An alternative to expensive smalt is a special glass that has properties such as water resistance, impact resistance, wear resistance, and withstands temperature extremes. An additional advantage of glass, unlike, for example, ceramics, is that its structure is continuous, therefore it is not affected by various harmful bacteria and microorganisms. The technology for the production of mosaics directly depends on the raw materials from which it is made.

For example, the process for producing ceramic mosaics is similar to the method used to make ordinary ceramic tiles. Simplified it can be represented as follows: at the first stage, a mixture of clay, quartz sand, kaolin, feldspar and various pigments is laid out in shapes, then pressed, then coated with glaze and fired.

For the manufacture of mosaics with a natural shade, dry non-chamotted mixtures are used. In the manufacture of colored mosaics, i.e. with the addition of dye, slip mixtures are used. This production process is fully automated. Mosaic tiles from porcelain stoneware are made in a different, simpler way. In this case, the finished porcelain tile is simply cut into small pieces using a waterjet tool. Glass mosaic is made of durable sheet glass. First, such glass is painted with special paints that withstand high temperatures. Then it is transmitted for cutting, where it is cut into the required formats. At the next stage, these small fragments are collected on special substrates.

And finally, the semi-finished products are loaded into the furnace for the most critical stage of the production process, which is firing. In the oven, mosaic pieces undergo heat treatment at a temperature of 900ºС. In the process of such firing, the paint is poured into the glass, its surface is tempered, and the corners melt and become smooth.

Regardless of the material from which the carpet mosaic is made, one of the final processes of its production, as a rule, is one and represents a sticker of the finished pieces of the future mosaic on the base. This process is also automated. First, a template is fed to the conveyor - a special aluminum cassette, the size of the nests of which corresponds to the dimensions of the workpieces, and the depth is somewhat less, which makes it possible to easily remove the finished mosaic from the cells in the future. These nests are separated by special partitions, on the place of which then tile joints are formed.

Mosaic tiles must be placed in the cassette so that its front side always looks up. Then the aluminum cassette enters the tunnel with powerful gas burners, where it is heated to the required temperature. At the penultimate stage, a special paper base impregnated with a glutinous solution, which is called a matrix or carpet, is imposed on the finished mosaic (hence the name - carpet mosaic).

In most cases, the matrices have standard sizes - 424x672 mm. The width of the tile joints is 4 mm. And as a basis for the matrix, one of the varieties of Kraft wrapping paper is used. A mosaic with a paper base is sent to the drying chamber, and upon leaving it a carpet with a mosaic is removed from the conveyor belt and transferred to a forklift. Then the sheets are formed into piles and sent to sorting, packaging and shipping or storage at the warehouse.

The cost of organizing the production of mosaics

The cost depends on the material used and the technology of its production. Even a mosaic from the same raw material can be made in various ways. For example, glass mosaics can be made by stamping from quartz glass using various plasticizers or by molding. The industrial line for the production of glass mosaics includes a tunnel kiln (24 m), a printing line for dyeing glass (in turn it includes printing machines with dryers), metal drying racks, machines for breaking glass, compresses, a prepress complex, dead-end furnace for small volume orders. You will also need spare parts for equipment, tools necessary for working with glass, and raw materials.

The latter includes high-strength flat glass or cullet, high-quality glazes and paints (inorganic pigments), waterproof mounting mesh, waterproof adhesive. The Russian market offers a fairly wide selection of equipment for the production of glass mosaic tiles. Its cost ranges from 2 million rubles (used equipment of low power) to 15-17 million rubles. That is how much the Italian line costs with a capacity of 8, 000 to 12, 000 square meters. meters of mosaic per month (volumes depend on the size of the tiles produced) with installation, recipe and staff training to work with it.

Using such equipment, it is possible to produce glass mosaic tiles in five sizes: 10x10 mm, 15x15 mm, 20x20 mm, 25x25 mm and 36x36 mm. As the main raw material, it is recommended to use window cullet, as well as dyes (European or Chinese production).

According to suppliers of such equipment, the products manufactured with its help are not inferior in quality to the mosaic of Spanish and Italian companies (although, of course, the quality largely depends not only on equipment, but also on technology, specialists and raw materials). The profitability of this type of business is claimed by them as 70% for wholesale sales and up to 250% for retail sales. Payback periods for such data are no more than a year. In practice, the profitability of the glass mosaic factory is slightly lower and rarely exceeds 50% (although this indicator can be considered high).

Sysoeva Lilia

(c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to business plans and guidelines for starting a small business 08/18/2019


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