In strength, such a profile is not inferior to steel elements, but at the same time, due to its light weight, it can significantly reduce the weight of the entire structure. The aluminum profile lends itself well to machining. It is possible to drill holes in it without the use of additional efforts, it is easy to grind and milling, it is well welded by gas, friction, contact and other types of welding. To assemble structures from an industrial profile, connecting elements are used, which are made of plastic, as well as galvanized or stainless steel.
Thus, the aluminum profile has the widest application in construction, decoration and industry. As a rule, it is used as a finishing material for residential and office premises. Its great advantage is its beautiful appearance and the absence of the need for additional processing. In addition, the aluminum profile is also used for decorating building facades. To protect against corrosion, the metal is anodized or powder coated. Also, the aluminum profile often acts as a structural element in transport systems, in conveyor and loading equipment. It is widely used in systems of ventilated facades, in architecture and cladding, in the manufacture of metal structures, in interior design (installation of windows and doors, office partitions, the manufacture of cabinet furniture and sliding wardrobes), as an element of the construction of outdoor advertising, trade and exhibition equipment and advertising media (a special exhibition profile is used for this).
Over the past few years, the construction industry has been developing most rapidly in our country. And recently, experts have noted an increase in demand for lightweight structures, which are replacing heavy reinforced concrete and expanded clay concrete panels. This is one of the most significant trends in modern construction, which allows us to evaluate the aluminum profile business as profitable and promising. To organize your own business, you will need to register an industrial enterprise, acquire production technologies, rent premises for a workshop and a warehouse, purchase equipment, select working personnel and train it, as well as find customers and organize sales of finished products.
Aluminum Profile Production
The production of aluminum profiles is one of the most material-intensive ones; it requires the preparation of special permits and considerable investments at the first stage of work. However, despite all these shortcomings, the payback period of the initial investment is relatively small (with a fifty percent load on production, the payback period does not exceed one and a half years), since the demand for such products is stable and increases significantly every year.
There are two options for organizing the production of aluminum profiles. The first option - the most costly - is that all types of profiles are cast at the plant, or at once solid structures for a special project. In the second case, profiles are pressed in the workshop. The structures are made up of individual parts of an aluminum profile fastened with bolts. In the second case, investments will be much lower, but the demand for such products is also low. Therefore, if you expect to receive high profits, then you should consider only the option of organizing a full-fledged casting plant, rather than assembling profiles from individual components.
As a raw material for the production of aluminum profile, a special three-component alloy with the content of magnesium and silicon acts. There are two main methods for the production of aluminum profiles - “cold” and “warm”. In the first case, finished profiles are extruded using a press extruder from round billets (ingots). This technology for the production of aluminum profiles is called extrusion (during which the material is forced through a hole of a certain shape).
The production process includes the following stages: heating of the pressing equipment and ingots in a gas furnace, pressing of the profile, cutting and aging process of finished products. Of course, in fact, this is a very complex technology that requires strict adherence to the technology used. If it is violated at the stage of manufacturing the alloy, defects may appear on the finished product in the form of bubbles. If slag gets into the workpiece, this will lead to the appearance of risks. For this reason, it is so important to carefully monitor the quality of work at all stages of the production process. According to the technology of the "warm" profile, special gaskets made of polyamide and polyurethane between two aluminum plates are used. It is used in the manufacture of profiles for double-glazed windows.
For the manufacture of aluminum profiles will require high-tech equipment, which is divided into equipment for a foundry line and a workshop for the extrusion of products. In the first case, a gas furnace is used for melting aluminum (the cost of such a furnace starts from 13 thousand euros), a rotary baffle mixer (worth about 11 thousand euros) and a casting table (about 8.5 thousand euros).
Equipment for the press cycle includes a furnace for heating billets (about 6 thousand euros), a saw for cutting billets using the hot method (from 3.5 thousand euros), the actual press extruder (about 15 thousand euros), a feed line blanks to the press (from 4 thousand euros), a post-press profile processing line (from 6 thousand euros) and a furnace for annealing finished products (another about 5 thousand euros). Also, control instruments and various measuring instruments will be required to monitor the quality of products at each stage of the process.
The room for the aluminum profile workshop should be located in an industrial area - on the outskirts or outside the city, away from residential buildings. Ideally, this could be a building of a former factory - so you spend less on arranging a room and providing access roads. The production room is necessarily equipped with hoisting-and-transport mechanisms (for example, crane beams) for moving finished profiles. To accommodate a workshop with all the necessary equipment, warehouses for raw materials, as well as household and utility rooms, an area of about 300 square meters will be required. meters. In this case, the warehouse of finished products should be located separately, but preferably next to the production. It should be quite spacious, since the aluminum profile, although not very heavy, takes up a lot of space. In addition, the warehouse should have sufficiently high ceilings, which will allow for more rational organization of storage of finished profiles.
For the smooth operation of your production will require a minimum of five to six employees (production manager, technologist, operator and foremen). At the same time, as in any other small enterprise, all employees, despite the fact that each of them occupies a certain position and performs their functions, are nevertheless more universal and can replace each other if necessary.
The organization of a business for the production of aluminum profiles requires extensive experience in this field, excellent knowledge of the technology and relatively large investments. This type of production must be licensed without fail, therefore additional costs are associated with obtaining certificates of conformity for products and production and a license for construction and installation work (if you plan to provide such services, but we will talk about this in more detail below).
Of particular note is the issue of pricing. The price of an aluminum profile directly depends on the cost of the main raw material for its production - aluminum. In turn, the price of aluminum is affected by price fluctuations on the London Metal Exchange (LME). For these reasons, many manufacturers of aluminum profiles build their pricing on the principle of "floating prices." This means that the price for the production and manufacture of aluminum profiles is tied to the prices for LME, which anyone can see on the official website of the exchange. Thus, potential and regular customers can themselves predict the cost of the profile, focusing on the price of raw materials. At the same time, the manufacturer increases the loyalty of its customers by offering them a more “objective and transparent” price than that of competitors.
The main customers of such an enterprise are construction companies, dealers and distributors of metal products, specialized stores selling construction and finishing materials, construction markets, as well as individuals.
According to preliminary estimates, the organization of a business for the production of aluminum profiles will require initial investments in the amount of 110 thousand euros. This amount includes the rental of production and storage facilities, the purchase of equipment, raw materials, a payroll for the first three months of work, and other unavoidable expenses. The profitability of this type of production is estimated at 12%.
Aluminum profile assembly business
As we already wrote, it is possible to cast aluminum profiles and sell them to construction companies and individuals. In addition, you can slightly expand the range of services and offer your customers not only finished products, but also opportunities for assembling structures for individual orders. In addition, if you do not have enough funds to organize full-scale production of the profile, you can start your business by providing services for its assembly, and then expand it towards production. Whichever option you choose, it is worth considering the fact that this option of doing business requires less effort for the organization, but also involves additional costs for expanding the staff and obtaining the necessary licenses and permits.
Aluminum structures include finished products (for example, windows, doors, shop windows, facades, balconies, etc.), which consist of a double-glazed window, a system profile with and without a thermal bridge, and fittings. There are two types of such structures - front-dome and window-door. The latter can be “cold” and “warm”, which is determined by the absence or presence of a thermal bridge - gaskets made of polyamide and polyurethane between the two aluminum profiles that make up a single system with them. The difference between “cold” and “warm” structures is determined by the scope of their application: the former are suitable for internal use - doors, windows, partitions indoors, and the latter are intended for external “use” (entrance doors, exterior windows, etc.) and help keep warm.
Facade systems are used to create facade curtain walls, translucent roofs and domes. The most widespread are classical facade-dome systems (which include post-and-support and crossbar, as well as facades with semi-structural and structural glazing).
For the manufacture of aluminum structures will require a separate room. Its area may be two times less than the area of the production workshop and be about 100-150 square meters. meters. At the same time, no special requirements are imposed on such a room. An additional area of 30 square meters will be enough to store accessories and components. meters, but the finished product, as in the case of aluminum profiles, will need to be stored in a separate warehouse in a large area and preferably with high ceilings.
For the manufacture of metal structures requires special equipment. The exact list of necessary equipment depends on which method of connecting the corners of the structure is used in production. There are two options. In the first case, holes are cut in the profile for screeds and bolts, with which the corners are connected (this method is called screwing). A simple hand tool is sufficient for this. When using the second method, the edges of the profile are lubricated with glue and crimped on the machine. This method is more complicated and costly, since it requires special equipment, but it is considered much more reliable than the first. For obvious reasons, most manufacturers of aluminum structures prefer to use the first method.
If you intend to assemble by pressing, then you will need to purchase a whole set of additional equipment, which includes at least a press for connecting corners, a compressor with a dehumidifier and a set of pneumatic tools, saws for cutting a profile. Although the costs in this case will be higher, nevertheless, you can also significantly increase your productivity. However, when the volume of orders you receive exceeds 10 structures (for example, double-glazed windows) per day, you will need to purchase a number of tools: a copy-milling machine for holes for fittings, a stationary saw with cooling, used to cut aluminum profiles, a stand for adjusting angles and installation double-glazed window, a saw for cutting glazing beads. This equipment does not belong to the category of high-tech, so it is quite possible to purchase it in a used state and thus save up to 40%. As a rule, reconditioned equipment is brought from Europe.
Additional costs include renting or buying a truck for transportation of assembled structures. In addition, you will need desks for assembling double-glazed windows, carts for transporting components and finished products, scaffolding, etc. Some of this list can be purchased or made independently. You will also need hand tools - hammers, scissors for cutting gaskets, special suction cups for transporting double-glazed windows, pneumatic drills, pneumatic screwdrivers, etc. The most famous manufacturers of high-quality specialized hand tools are also located in Europe.
Creating structures from aluminum profiles is impossible without preliminary calculations, which should be as accurate as possible, which will allow you to correctly calculate the required material consumption. To do this, we need a special computer program, which within a few minutes on the basis of the entered data gives a calculation of the preliminary cost of the finished structure. This program is paid, and, in principle, it is not one of the most necessary for work. However, experienced entrepreneurs are still advised to purchase it. Thus, you can not only speed up the process of determining the cost of the order (and do not make customers wait long), but also eliminate the notorious human factor, which is fraught with very costly mistakes, when making a preliminary estimate.
For the manufacture of aluminum structures, raw materials and components are also required. These include the aluminum profile itself, double-glazed windows and fittings. Good quality aluminum profiles are produced both abroad (in Germany, Italy, Poland, Greece, Belgium, Turkey) and in our country. But the hardware experts recommend acquiring European production, rather than domestic. In addition, it must be borne in mind that in the manufacture of aluminum structures, profiles of various types are used, each of which is suitable for the production of a particular system - window, facade or door. It is advisable, at least for the first time, to select a certain specialization and, for example, produce only window systems or facade systems. So you will gain a certain experience and reputation, even in a narrower segment, but with the prospect of expanding production.
When choosing a supplier of materials for the production of aluminum structures, pay attention, firstly, to prices, secondly, to the assortment and, thirdly, its location. In the latter case, the rule applies: the closer, the better. Aluminum profiles are usually implemented in linear meters and in kilometers. При этом на изготовление двух систем – оконной и дверной – может потребоваться более десятка различных видов профилей. Некоторые производители оконных систем замахиваются также на производство стеклопакетов, однако это довольно сложное и затратное дело, которое стоит рассматривать как совершенно отдельный вид бизнеса. Именно по этой причине многие, даже крупные компании-производители алюминиевых конструкций предпочитают закупать уже готовые стеклопакеты.
Также стоит учитывать, что для изготовления алюминиевых конструкций нужно получить соответствующую разрешительную документацию. Полный комплект документов включает в себя лицензию на проведение строительно-монтажных работ, сертификат на производство и сертификат соответствия продукции.
В небольшой компании, которая занимается производством до десяти конструкций за смену, минимальный штат сотрудников составляет от 8 до12 человек. При этом более половины из них будут задействованы на производстве алюминиевых конструкций и занимаются их установкой. А оставшиеся сотрудники принимают заказы у клиентов, занимаются закупками и реализацией готовой продукции.
В производственном цехе работает начальник производства и несколько сборщиков. Последние занимаются резкой алюминиевого профиля, соединением и прессованием углов, фрезеровкой отверстий для фурнитуры. Начальник производства осуществляет контроль за всем технологическим процессом.
Кроме того, вам потребуются монтажники в количестве до трех человек. Распространено мнение, что лучшие специалисты должны работать на производстве, ведь от них напрямую зависит качество готовой продукции. Однако роль монтажников не менее важна, так как неквалифицированные небрежные работники могут просто испортить самую качественную продукцию. Найти хороших специалистов по монтажу весьма непросто, поэтому многие производители алюминиевых конструкций передают заказы на установку своей продукции проверенным партнерским строительно-монтажным фирмам. Причем они могут сотрудничать не с одной компанией, а с несколькими.
Если вы беретесь за сложные архитектурные проекты (зимние сады, фасады, купола и т. д.), то в вашем штате должен быть также профессиональный инженер-конструктор. Найти такого готового специалиста будет непросто. Поэтому есть два варианта: либо переманить инженера у конкурирующего предприятия, предложив ему более высокую заработную плату, либо брать на работу недавних выпускников и обучать их всем премудростям. В настоящее время существует большое количество различных краткосрочных курсов, поэтому с обучением проблем не возникнет. Однако, во-первых, это обучение занимает довольно много времени (до полугода). Во-вторых, оно платное, и платить за него придется, скорее всего, вам. И наконец, никто не гарантирует, что обученный вами специалист не уйдет в скором времени к конкурентам или сам не откроет такую же фирму, став конкурентом вам.
Срок окупаемости бизнеса по производству алюминиевых конструкций при относительно небольших капиталовложениях, которые оцениваются в 300-350 тыс. рублей, составляет от полугода до года. Чем больше стартовый капитал и чем разумнее его использование, тем меньше будет срок окупаемости. Рентабельность этого вида бизнеса составляет примерно 12%, что несколько ниже, чем в случае с производством алюминиевых конструкций, но вполне достаточно для получения высокой прибыли даже в том случае, если это единственное направление деятельности вашей фирмы.
Основные клиенты фирмы, которые занимаются сборкой алюминиевых конструкций, - строительные компании и физические лица.
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