A blackboard is an unchanging attribute of any classroom. Blackboards, also called classrooms, come in several different forms. In particular, there are chalk (traditional), magnetic marker and combination boards. Boards may differ in their design. For example, there are one-, three- and five-element boards.
If we are talking about boards consisting of three or five parts, then only one of their elements is attached to the wall - the central one, and the rest, if necessary, are opened and closed using hinged fasteners. The most popular are boards with three sections. Chalk boards are designed for writing in chalk. Previously, these boards were produced in black or dark brown. Nowadays, chalky boards of dull green color are more common, which is more favorable for the eyes, with a slight sheen. On magnetic whiteboards with a white surface they write using special easily washable markers in various colors. There are also so-called combined boards, one or several parts of which are used for writing with chalk, and the second or others - for writing with a marker. They are most often used in geometry and drawing lessons, since the graphic drawing with a marker is more subtle and accurate than with chalk. However, many teachers still prefer to write texts (task conditions, etc.) as chalk. In this case, the central “front” part of the board with five working surfaces, as a rule, has a coating for writing with chalk, and the reverse sides for writing with a marker. White marker writing surfaces can also be used as a screen for a projector. And the surface of the chalk boards can be traced for a specific object (apply a cell, line, oblique line, stave, etc.). At the same time, the ruler can be both bright and contrasting (mainly for the elementary grades), and barely noticeable to facilitate writing (for high school students when building graphs, drawings, etc.).
On almost all types of modern boards, various visual materials can be attached with magnets to the entire surface of the board or to a section specially designed for this purpose. For stacking chalk, markers, sponges to erase the written board are equipped with a special tray. The blackboard must necessarily be coated with an anti-reflective coating, since the reflections interfere with reading written on the blackboard and negatively affect the eyesight of children.
There are other, less common options for the performance of classroom boards. So, for example, in addition to the most popular wall chalk and marker boards, there are hoisting-and-moving boards, rotary boards on metal supports, boards with textile coating, cork boards, stands, etc.
Depending on the surface material, there are boards with melamine coating, with varnish coating (enamelled), with plastic and ceramic coating.
A melamine coating is a special melamine film that is applied to plastic. Plastic, in turn, is attached to a thin metal sheet, due to which the board acquires magnetic properties (on it you can hang posters, manuals, visual aids, etc.). Such boards are extremely easy to manufacture and low cost, therefore, they cost retail much cheaper than others. However, the melamine film has significant drawbacks: it is short-lived and is subject to rapid wear. Even with a relatively small load for 3-4 years of operation, such a coating is simply erased from sections of the board where they most often write. In this case, traces of the marker are eaten into the film so much that it becomes impossible to wipe them. Melamine coated boards are recommended to be changed every 1-2 years.
Enameled or, as it is also called, varnish coating is applied to a steel sheet. The service life of such a blackboard is slightly longer than that of melamine, and is about five years with an average load. However, an enamel coated board very quickly loses its original appearance, although it remains usable. As you know, on any painted surface there are pores. Over time, the particles of the coloring matter, which is used in the marker, clog into the micropores, leaving an indelible mark. The white surface quickly turns gray in dark stains. In addition, the lacquered coating gives strong glare, which is dangerous for eyesight, and due to sudden changes in temperature and humidity (especially if the board is wiped with a damp cloth and not with a dry sponge specially designed for such surfaces), the paint may bubble or peel off.
Ceramic coated boards are less common. Such coverage is considered the most durable and durable, and the service life of these classroom boards is even with active use of about twenty-five years. The coloring substances of the marker are easily washed off the ceramics, leaving no traces on its surface. However, the main minus of ceramic-coated boards is their high cost, which not every school can afford (given that even dozens of boards are needed for secondary schools).
As a compromise in terms of price and quality, school boards made of high pressure plastic (HPI plastic) can be called. Marker marks are washed off from a smooth plastic surface with virtually no trace. Plastic is more resistant even to adverse environmental conditions (humidity, temperature changes).
The only drawback is that it is difficult to attach various visual teaching materials to the plastic board. However, this inconvenience is compensated in the new models of boards: a steel sheet is laid under the outer thin sheet of plastic. It also allows you to achieve a flat hard surface for greater ease of writing on the board and the strength of the product. Caring for a blackboard with an HPL plastic surface is easy and simple - just wipe it with a sponge without the use of additional cleaners. The life of such a classroom board is even with the most active use of about fifteen years.
In addition to the coating, the profile from which the school board is made is of great importance. The reliability of the entire product, its service life and, most importantly, the safety of use depend on its quality. The cheapest type of profile is thin metal parts with through fasteners. The disadvantages of this profile are insufficient reliability (metal does not differ in sufficient rigidity, therefore it can be used only for small boards) and insecurity (sharp metal edges of the profile are not protected by anything). Another version of boards with a metal profile is boards with metal frames with hidden fasteners. Deficiencies remain. The only advantage of this design is a more aesthetic appearance (no screws are visible that hold the frame). Another modification of such boards is a model with plastic corners. This option is less dangerous (soft plastic covers sharp corners, which children can hurt) and more interesting in appearance. The optimal profile option for inexpensive blackboards is an aluminum construction with sturdy corners and plastic protective pads. The aluminum base provides the necessary rigidity, which makes it possible to use such a profile even in large format heavy boards.
The production of school classrooms is a rather complicated process, as high requirements are imposed on these products, as well as on other school equipment and furniture: it must fully comply with established standards and norms. The main requirements for blackboards are resistance to mechanical and chemical influences, increased strength. As a basis for their manufacture, as a rule, a steel sheet with a certain coating (melamine film, glass enamel, plastic, etc.) is used, which provides the school board with additional strength and reliability.
The production room, where school boards and furniture are made, are divided into several separate sections. So, on the blank section metal parts are stored and cut, metal structures are welded for desks, tables, chairs, flipcharts and boards. At the assembly site, finished products are assembled from separate components. Previously, all components undergo one or two quality control. After all the metal parts are cut and assembled, the package is glued (the inside of the board). At the same stage, the metal adheres to the base. For this, a vacuum press is used, which ensures uniform and reliable gluing of the working surface over the entire area of the board.
After gluing the foundation of the future classroom board, a profile and a chalk box are made. In this case, the craftsmen use special carpentry tools that ensure the accuracy of the cuts, which is necessary for a clear combination of all the corners in the frame of the board. Finally, at the last stage, all the individual parts of the board are mounted, the finished product is packed together with a fastener kit, installation instructions, technical data sheet and other necessary documents.
In order to open the production of blackboards alone, large capital is not required. However, highly specialized production in itself is unlikely to be profitable. It is more profitable to manufacture the entire range of school equipment, including desks, cabinets for methodological literature, etc. In this case, of course, the costs will be higher. You will need a room for a production workshop, carpentry equipment, drawings. There are special requirements for school furniture. There are special standards and requirements. Familiarize yourself with them before you begin.
The main regulatory document that governs the requirements for educational furniture is GOST 22046-02 “Furniture for educational institutions. Technical conditions ”of July 1, 2003. There are also various GOSTs, which determine the functional dimensions and requirements for various types of school furniture (desks, tables, chairs).
Requirements for blackboards are given in GOST 20064-86 “Blackboards. General technical requirements. " Keep in mind that for school furniture it is necessary to issue a declaration of conformity with the wording: "Furniture for secondary schools (trademark): tables, chairs (indicating models and part numbers)." Tables and chairs that are designed for schools will need to draw up different test reports, as different state standards apply for each type of product.
You will also have to actively search for customers. The competition in the market for such furniture is great, so representatives of manufacturing companies go to educational institutions in their city and offer their products directly. Additional profit can bring and the sale of educational desks and boards designed not for schools, but for domestic use. Many parents, when their children go to first grade, do not acquire the usual desks, but special desks, the table top of which has a slight slope. Such desks have an ergonomic design. Some models can be adjusted in height, which increases the life of the product. However, the manufacture and sale of special orthopedic furniture can hardly be called an “additional” area of work for a manufacturing enterprise, since its development and production will require a lot of money. But blackboards for writing with chalk or marker are used not only in schools, but also in offices, and even as an element of decor for a regular apartment or house. Such boards differ in a smaller format than classrooms. Sometimes they are made in the form of folding easels (unilateral and bilateral boards, sometimes with combined surfaces). They are not intended for intensive use, so manufacturers use budgetary coatings for them, up to painting plywood surfaces with special paint for blackboards. After drying such a paint on the painted surfaces, it can be written in chalk. The main disadvantage of this coating is its low wear resistance (chalk easily leaves scratches on the paint).
The minimum starting capital for opening a small workshop for the production of school furniture is 150-200 thousand rubles. This amount includes only the rental of premises for the workshop and warehouse, as well as the purchase of equipment and tools for work. Payback periods are from six months. For the organization of larger production will require from 2.5-3 million rubles. Schools purchase furniture and equipment for classes from March to October-November. In the spring, as a rule, they are determined with the needs of each class, and in the autumn everything necessary is acquired. Therefore, it is recommended to open the production of school furniture in the fall and winter in order to have time to prepare samples. Do not forget to compile catalogs with photographs and a detailed description of your products, as well as prepare business cards with contact details or flyers for your sales managers with information about your company.
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