Laminaria (better known to us as “sea kale”) belongs to the class of brown seaweed. Many of their species are eaten. Moreover, seaweed contains a large number of useful macro- and microelements. In addition, seaweed is used in agriculture as fertilizer and in cosmetology as a means for wrapping. The production of sea kale is considered highly profitable, but at the same time quite a costly business.
Sea kale is a valuable product
There are various types of kelp. For example, Japanese kelp is common in the southern regions of the Sea of Japan and Okhotsk. In the White and Kara Seas, sugared and palm-shaped kelp is mined, which are used for cooking and for medical purposes. Different types of kelp can vary in composition depending on the place of growth, composition and temperature of sea water, underwater light. But in any case, the following components will be present in the kelp:
alginates - natural enterosorbents that can bind and remove radionuclides, toxins, bacteria, heavy metal ions and excess cholesterol from the body;
complete protein, which includes all known amino acids;
polyunsaturated fatty acids necessary for the prevention of atherosclerosis;
high-molecular polysaccharides that normalize metabolic processes, prevent blood clots and regulate blood cholesterol and water-salt balance;
macro- and microelements, almost in their entirety, extracted by this alga from sea water in an organic form that is easily accessible to the body;
soluble vegetable fiber, essential for the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract;
iodine in an organically bound form, which is best suited to supplement iodine deficiency;
vitamins A, C, D, E and group B.
Kelp grow at a certain depth along the coast. Large underwater “algal forests” can form at depths of up to 35 meters (average depth 4-10 meters). A two-year thallus is suitable for harvesting, as it is larger in size, accumulates the maximum amount of biologically active substances and contains less water. Algae is collected using special poles with a fork-shaped spring at the end, on which the thallus is wound. In addition, fresh algae is collected which is carried ashore by the tides. If kelp is planned to be used for medicinal purposes, then the thallus is washed from sand and silt in running water and dried. Drying can be done naturally (in this case, kelp is dried in the open air immediately after collection) and forcibly (freeze-dried sea kale). In the latter case, drying is carried out using special machines that “ram” the kelp, removing excess moisture. Previously, such raw materials are purified from sand and other impurities.
The finished medicinal raw material is a dense leathery plate with wavy (in sugary kelp), smooth (in Japanese kelp) or wavy-torn (in palm-shaped laminaria and Clownston kelp). The dried kelp has, as a rule, a light olive, greenish-brown, red-brown or blackish-green color, and its surface is covered with a white coating when it dries. After drying, seaweed is crushed and can be used as a food supplement or as a component of drugs.
Sea kale, which is used to make canned food, is obtained in the coastal waters of Primorye, Sakhalin, and the South Kuril Islands. If the processing enterprises are located near the place of extraction of kelp, then it comes to production in fresh or frozen form. In this case, mined seaweed is stored until canned for processing in refrigerated rooms at temperatures from 0 ° to –3 ° for no more than 4–5 days or frozen (in exceptional cases, it is allowed to snore seaweed under shelters or in ventilated rooms, but not more than a day ) Producers located in more remote regions use dried seaweed for the production of canned food.
Technology for the production of seaweed salads
All raw materials used in production must comply with the requirements of regulatory documents and have documents that confirm their quality. In the production of salads from kelp, as a rule, the following raw materials are used: dried food kelp (sea kale) according to TU 15-02-009-11-95 or other applicable regulatory documents authorized for use; fresh carrots according to GOST 1721-85; fresh onions in accordance with GOST 1723-86; white cabbage in accordance with GOST 1724-85; sweet pepper in accordance with GOST 13908-68; allspice according to GOST 29045-91; black and white pepper in accordance with GOST 29050-91; ground red pepper in accordance with GOST 29053-91; clove in accordance with GOST 29047-91; granulated sugar in accordance with GOST 21-94; edible salt not lower than 1 grade, packed according to GOST 13830-91; citric acid according to GOST 908-79; natural alcohol vinegar in accordance with TU 18.08.20196636.101-93 or other applicable regulatory documents authorized for use; acetic acid according to GOST 6968-76, GOST 61-75 or synthetic food acid according to the current regulatory documentation, approved for use; sunflower oil in accordance with GOST 1129; vegetable marinades in accordance with GOST 1633; dried table carrots according to GOST 7588; bay leaf according to GOST 17594; cinnamon according to GOST 29049; mayonnaise according to GOST R 53590-2009; drinking water according to GOST 2874-82. Raw materials and materials in which the content of toxic elements, pesticides, and patulin mycotoxin exceeds the permissible levels approved by SanPiN on 08/18/2019.1078-01 are not accepted for processing.
As mentioned above, for processing seaweed comes in fresh or dry form in boxes, containers, pallets or other containers provided for by the regulatory documentation for this type of product. Fresh kelp can also be transported in bulk in open road vehicles with protection of raw materials from atmospheric precipitation and low temperature, and dried seaweed, as a rule, is shipped in paper bags or plastic bags. All containers used for transportation and storage must be strong, dry, clean, free from odors.
The raw materials entering the enterprise are accepted in accordance with the acceptance rules set forth in the regulatory documentation. It is stored in covered raw material areas or refrigerated warehouses. During processing, seaweed is carefully sorted. In this case, rotten, covered with mold or whitish bloom of the thallus is removed from it. During processing, rhizoids (filamentous formations) and petioles are removed. Frozen cabbage is thawed in clean running water. Sorted raw materials are washed again until sand, silt and other mechanical impurities are completely removed.
If, for the production of canned food, kelp gets into production in a dry form, then it is sent by conveyor to a special container (drum) for soaking, filled there with cold running water and washed for half an hour with periodic stirring, and then soaked for four hours with complete immersion into water for swelling. After soaking, the cabbage is washed until complete removal of impurities.
Washed seaweed gets into the cooking baths. It is loaded into boiling water with a cabbage-water ratio of 1: 8, blanched for 25-45 minutes (the exact time depends on the batch size of the kelp and scalding device) and is quickly washed with cold water. When blanching, the mass of seaweed increases five times. After blanching, seaweed, if it was put into production in the form of thalli, is shredded with straws from 2 to 5 mm wide.
If the cabbage is produced in its pure form, without additional additives, then at the next stage it is placed in trays and packed. Salads based on seaweed are prepared in a special canned compartment. There, the preparation of other ingredients of the future salad is carried out. Onions are peeled from the surface husk, washed in a drum washer, blanched for 2-3 minutes in boiling water and cooled in cold drinking water, and then cut into circles with a thickness of 2 to 5 mm on a vegetable cutting machine. Carrots are trained on special equipment. There it is cleaned of dry impurities, sorted and washed in a washing machine, and the ends are trimmed on conveyors with trimmers. On a special complex of a steam meter and a paddle washer or on a continuous cycle washer, carrots are peeled, followed by manual tertiary treatment, rinsed with water, blanched for 2-4 minutes and cut into pieces. The rest of the products are also prepared in approximately the same way: sweet pepper is peeled of the stalk and seeds, then rinsed in cold water, cut, blanched and cooled.
Auxiliary materials are also pre-prepared: granulated sugar and salt are passed through a sifter with a magnetic trap or a central vertical sifter. Bay leaf is also checked for impurities, washed, soaked, poured with boiling water and dried. Allspice and bitter pepper in the grains are freed from impurities, spoiled grains are removed, and the remaining grains are passed through traps of metallic impurities. Peppers are sterilized in an autoclave in a dry form. At the next stage, liquid additives are prepared (acetic acid, pickling, mayonnaise sauce, etc.). One of the most common ways to marinate algae is to mix the product with various marinades, such as spices, vegetable oil, vinegar and others. To obtain the best quality result, you need a good mixing system that provides maximum product contact with the added semi-liquid ingredients in order to obtain the desired taste of the product, as well as increase its shelf life.
In addition, seaweed is mixed with various products, such as peeled and chopped onions, red peppers, corn or seafood: shrimp, mussels, sliced squid and others.
At the last stage, seaweed gets into the device for mixing salads, where all the ingredients of the salad are mixed with a mechanical shaft, then transferred to the dispenser and through the transfer hoses to plastic containers.
Ready-made salads are stored in well-ventilated warehouses, protected from direct sunlight and with a relative humidity of not more than 75%.
The warranty shelf life of salads from the date of manufacture is:
• at storage temperature from 0 C to +4 C - not more than 48 hours;
• at a storage temperature from 0 C to -4 C - no more than 72 hours;
• at a storage temperature from -4 C to -12 C - not more than 10 days;
• at storage temperature not higher than -18 С - no more than 30 days.
The technology of manufacturing dried seaweed
Not only canned food can be made from kelp (during the preparation of which, as you know, this product loses many of its useful properties), but also dried seaweed is made in accordance with Technical Specifications TU 15-01 206-89. Dried seaweed must comply with the requirements of the technical conditions and be made according to the current technological instructions in compliance with sanitary norms and rules approved in the prescribed manner. Dried seaweed is made in the form of thalli and in shredded form. Depending on quality indicators, dried seaweed in thalli is divided into two varieties: the first and second. According to organoleptic characteristics, dried seaweed must meet certain requirements. For example, requirements are imposed on appearance. Shredded sea kale is produced in the form of strips cut across the thallus, with a width of not more than 5 mm. The presence of deformed strips is allowed.
In this case, the finished product is divided into grades. First grade: thalli and pieces of thalli with a length of at least 15 cm of natural width. The surface of the thallus is clean without calcareous deposits. Allowed white deposits of salts and destruction over no more than 1/5 of the thallus caused by biological characteristics and hydrological changes. No more than 2% of thalli with cutouts of unacceptable color are allowed. Second grade: thalli and thallus pieces not less than 15 cm long of natural width. The surface of the thallus is clean without calcareous deposits. Allowed white deposits of salts and destruction over no more than 1/5 of the thallus caused by biological characteristics and hydrological changes. Cracks, cutouts of places with unacceptable coloring, damage on 1/3 of the thallus surface are allowed. Color: natural from light olive with a greenish tint to dark olive, greenish brown, black and green. Smell: peculiar to dried seaweed without extraneous discrediting symptoms.
According to physical and chemical parameters, dried seaweed must meet the following requirements. Mass fraction of water no more than 20% (test method according to GOST 26185). Mass fraction of iodine in terms of dry matter is not less than 0.1% (test method according to GOST 26185). Mass fraction of sand in terms of dry matter is not more than 0.2% (test method according to GOST 26185). The presence of impurities (shells, grass and others) is not allowed (test method according to GOST 26185). Mold is not allowed (test method according to GOST 20438). The mass fraction of iodine is determined at the request of the consumer.
For the manufacture of dried seaweed use:
• raw sea cabbage according to TU 15-01 360-73;
• frozen sea kale according to TU 15-01 213-80.
Label containers with products in accordance with GOST 7630, transport marking in accordance with GOST 14192 and GOST 7630.
Dried seaweed must be packed in a specific way. Shredded in corrugated cardboard boxes according to GOST 13516, TU 13-7310005-10, in paper bags, non-impregnated grade НМ according to GOST 2227 with a maximum product weight of 20 kg. The boxes inside must be lined with parchment according to GOST 1341, parchment according to GOST 1760 or wrapping paper according to GOST 8273. In thalli, cabbage is packed in corrugated cardboard boxes according to TU 13-7310005-10, paper bags impregnated with grade НМ according to GOST 2227 with the maximum product weight 20 kg Boxes must be tied with steel packing tape according to GOST 3560 or wire according to GOST 3282, or glued with adhesive tape on a paper basis according to GOST 18251, or with plastic tape with an adhesive layer according to GOST 20477. Bags must be sewn up by machine.
Acceptance rules in accordance with GOST 20438. Methods of sampling and organoleptic evaluation in accordance with GOST 20438, test methods in accordance with paragraph 1.5. these specifications.
They transport products at ambient temperature in the holds of dry cargo vessels, covered rail cars, closed vehicles in accordance with the rules for the carriage of goods in force on this type of transport. Store products in a clean, dry, ventilated area at ambient temperature. Shelf life 3 years from the date of manufacture.
We open a company for the production of seaweed salads
So, if you want to organize your own production of salads, first you need to officially register your business. The optimal legal form is an individual entrepreneur. Registration as an IP takes three days. When registering, you will need to indicate the main type of activity that you plan to engage in from the classifier of OKVED. To identify activities for the production of various kinds of salads of retail organizations (in supermarkets, chain specialized stores), class 15 OKVED codes should be used depending on the type of product, for example: meat-containing - code 18.08.2019, fish-containing - 15.20, etc. All-Russian classifier of types of economic activities, products and services: OKDP 1512900 - Canned seafood of various assortments, 1512901 Canned seaweed (salads, cabbage rolls).
As a tax, choose UTII. This taxation can be reduced by fixed contributions of individual entrepreneurs, as well as by contributions paid by individual entrepreneurs for their employees. Finally, you will need to open a bank account, which you will use for settlements with suppliers, as well as order a seal (its production will cost about 1000 rubles). In addition, you need to get certificates from the sanitary-epidemiological service, since your business is directly related to the food industry. All employees working in your factory must have a health record.
Rental of premises for a workshop and equipment for the manufacture of canned seaweed
Finding a suitable room for the workshop is easy. Its area should be 120-150 square meters and meet the requirements of the sanitary-epidemiological service. This means that your room should have hot water, sewage, electricity, separate rooms for the manufacture of products and storage of ready-made salads, a warehouse for raw materials and ingredients, a room for staff equipped with a shower and a dressing room. The area of the room depends on the number of personnel and the productivity of your enterprise. For example, for an enterprise where about one hundred kilograms per shift is produced, the minimum workshop area will be one hundred square meters. The optimal area is 120-150 square meters. meters. The following personnel will be required for such an area. The director will oversee the work of all staff, monitor and organize the procurement of raw materials, as well as deal with general issues related to the sale of finished products. Chefs usually work twelve hours per shift. For the smooth operation of the salad shop, two shift workers should be organized. Each shift can consist of one senior cook and three cooks. As mentioned above, every kitchen worker must have a health record. Thus, the total number of all staff is thirteen people.
The line for the production of canned seaweed will cost 950 million rubles. It includes equipment for the preparation and processing of raw materials, a mixing and pickling system, as well as a line for packaging and retailing or for catering.
The main raw material is dried and shredded seaweed (kelp), which is used to make salads, including canned salads. It can be purchased at a price of 65 rubles per 1 kg (the catch area is the Yellow Sea). The minimum lot for bulk orders is from 10, 000 kg. For a day, according to the supplier, the raw material during swelling increases in mass up to eight times. Finished raw materials are packaged in 20 kg polypropylene bags. Other components depend on the formulations used. They (as a rule, these are various vegetable additives and mayonnaise sauces) can also be purchased in your region.
Basic expenses and income
The main expenses for organizing the production of salads and canned seaweed are from 1.5 million rubles. Rent of the workshop will cost at least 60 thousand rubles, and equipment for it - 950 thousand rubles, the creation of inventory - 200, 000 rubles. If the room chosen for the workshop requires repair, then add at least another 300 thousand rubles. Monthly expenses for the maintenance of the workshop for the production of salads and canned seaweed are about 250-300 thousand rubles. This amount includes the costs of bookkeeping, the purchase of raw materials, rent, wages for staff. In a month, profit from such a workshop is about 650-700 thousand rubles. Excluding all major administrative and other expenses, the net profit of a small workshop will be 200-250 thousand rubles. Thus, the payback period of the business for the production of salads and canned seaweed reaches 1.5 years.
Although this business is not affected by the seasonality factor, the main peak of sales falls on the period from late autumn to early spring. Canned seaweed is an excellent alternative to fresh vegetable crops, so they are most in demand in the cold season.
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