Own business: production of frozen pancakes

Food industry Semi-finished and packaging products

Pancakes are a traditional dish of Russian cuisine and are always in high demand. However, if before they were cooked mainly at home, now most consumers prefer to buy frozen convenience foods, the preparation of which does not require much effort and time.

The business for the production of such products is highly profitable and profitable, which reduces the payback period of the enterprise. At the same time, a relatively small starting capital is required for its organization.

The equipment used for the production of semi-finished products is simple to operate and allows you to produce a wide range of frozen foods quickly prepared. The technology of their manufacture also does not require special knowledge and extensive experience. Competition in this segment is relatively small. Regional manufacturers have to compete with large federal companies, but small enterprises have several advantages compared to the latter: they respond more flexibly to changes in consumer demand, pay more attention to product quality and expanding the range. Despite the low level of competition, experts believe that the segment of frozen semi-finished products has great potential. According to RBC, the growth of this market amounted to 10.5% at the beginning of 2013.

Frozen crepes are available with various fillings and are one of the most popular processed foods for quick cooking. They are acquired by end users and various catering establishments. Of course, as for any other food production, product quality comes first. Products should be made exclusively from natural products without any additives. If you are going to produce only pancakes, then expand the range at least due to the wide variety of fillings. For example, in addition to the traditional types of fillings - meat, potatoes with green onions, potatoes with mushrooms, sweet cottage cheese with raisins, you can make pancakes with fillings of various fruits and jams (pear, apple, plum, exotic fruits), meat offal (liver, chicken hearts, etc.), etc. If you focus on the traditional origin of pancakes, refer to the recipes of Russian cuisine.

When opening their own workshop for the production of frozen semi-finished products, some entrepreneurs work illegally for the first time. At the same time, they are guided by the considerations that if the case “does not work”, then at any time they can close their production without extra costs. If the business develops successfully, then they will finally officially register as a legal entity. Nevertheless, such cottage industry is regarded as illegal business, which is fraught with fines. Therefore, it is better to start legal production by choosing the legal form of ownership. If you are not going to immediately start large-scale production with volumes of several tons of products per shift, then the best option is to register as an individual entrepreneur with a simplified tax system (UTII).

Then you can begin to search and prepare the premises for the workshop. It is advisable that the premises you have chosen have already been used for food production or that a catering establishment (cafe, restaurant, canteen) has already been located here. Most likely, you still have to fulfill the requirements of the SES to bring the premises in accordance with all the requirements, but it will cost you much less than using an unprepared room. In the latter case, if there was no workshop in the chosen place or if you are building it from scratch, your expenses will increase several times (preparation of the project, its approval, obtaining additional permits, repair and decoration, communications, etc.).

We now turn to the actual production. The manufacturing process of frozen pancakes with filling includes several separate stages. First, all the necessary products are served in a special whipping machine, then pancake dough, which has the consistency of liquid sour cream, is kneaded from them. After kneading, the dough enters the pancake machine, where billets are baked. The blanks are transferred to a large desktop, where they are manually filled with filling, wrapped and packaged in plastic wrap. At the fourth stage, pancakes are placed in an industrial low-temperature refrigerating chamber, where the semi-finished products are quickly frozen (the so-called “shock freezing”). After being removed from the chamber, pancakes in polyethylene are packed in cardboard boxes. Frozen pancakes are stored until shipped in a conventional refrigeration unit.

For making pancakes, the following ingredients are needed: flour, eggs, water, salt, sugar, soda and (in some cases) spices. As fillings, minced meat, chopped mushrooms, fruits, cottage cheese with raisins, mashed potatoes (with minced meat, onions or mushrooms) are usually used. For the organization of pancake production, a line for the production and freezing of pancakes and refrigerators for storing raw materials and finished products will be required. The line can be purchased ready-made or assemble it from separate nodes.

One of its most expensive components is shock freezing equipment, the cost of which is from several tens of thousands of euros. The same equipment is used in the production of ravioli and dumplings. It is necessary to maintain the presentation of the product. The dough, saturated with the filling juice, begins to darken, and the product takes on an unattractive appearance.

Of course, for a small enterprise, this equipment is too expensive. In a workshop with low productivity (up to 250 kg per day), where part of the operations is carried out manually, you can do with one low-temperature chamber or several freezer chests. The disadvantage of the latter is that they occupy a lot of space in the production room. In addition, from their work, the temperature in the workshop rises significantly.

However, the purchase of equipment for the production of pancakes, your expenses will not be limited, as separate equipment is necessary for the preparation of fillings. Industrial meat grinders are used to grind meat and mushrooms. The choice of those in the Russian market is quite large, and the range and price depend on the planned performance. A new meat grinder costs about 30-40 thousand rubles. However, you can save money and buy a used Soviet-style meat grinder, which is popularly called the “piglet”. Such an aggregate will cost 10-15 thousand rubles. It is less convenient to use than modern equipment, but at the first stage it is quite possible to get by with such a meat grinder.

Do not forget to purchase a flour sifter (its price is up to 100-120 thousand rubles). Many entrepreneurs consider it not the most necessary in the list of equipment. But if you intend to produce high-quality products, you should not save on a sifter, because it not only helps to remove impurities from the flour (garbage), but also saturates the flour with oxygen, which can significantly improve the properties of the dough.

When preparing a business plan, business owners often do not take into account the costs of various equipment and tools: trays, gastronomic containers, cutting boards, scales, knives, etc. But this “trifle” turns out to be very tangible in price. Therefore, lay on it a few more tens of thousands of rubles (the exact amount depends on the volume of production and the range of products, so it is calculated individually).

Since the choice of equipment for the production of pancakes is large enough, you can purchase a Russian, Chinese or Italian line. The latter will be the most expensive.

Please note: your products must comply with the GOST system. A conscientious manufacturer in the manufacture of semi-finished products, including frozen pancakes, uses only natural ingredients, so this product is safe. This is confirmed by certificates of conformity. Any products must comply with regulatory documentation - GOST or TU. Technical specifications are developed by the enterprise itself (which is quite a long time and expensive), and then they are agreed with the controlling organizations. Consumers trust GOSTs (the “generally accepted” standard) more than TU.

Special attention should be paid to the selection of workers. To begin with, their salaries and taxes are also related to large items of expenditure. The amount of wages depends on the region in which your production is located and on the population in this locality. In large cities, the salary will be higher, and in the region - a little less. However, in any case, you must offer them the conditions no worse (and preferably, of course, better) than competitors. This will prevent fluid loss and reduce theft.

A small workshop will require at least seven people who will be directly involved in production: two workers will follow the line, one will prepare raw materials, one will fill, and two will wrap the filling in pancakes (if there is no automated equipment). Another person will be engaged in loading and unloading finished semi-finished products in freezers and their packaging.

You can save on wages and extra workers if you purchase high-quality and high-performance auxiliary equipment (meat grinders, minced meat and dough mixers) from the very beginning. With equipment with low productivity, one or two workers may not have time to prepare raw materials and fillings, which significantly slows down the process of manufacturing semi-finished products. At the same time, the difference in the price of equipment with high and low productivity is not so significant as a result, in contrast to the cost of maintaining unnecessary workers.

Experienced entrepreneurs recommend that the ratio of men to women in production be approximately 1: 3 or 1: 4. Men are needed for lifting and carrying weights, and their salary will be slightly higher than for women. Women are easier to cope with monotonous work (for example, wrapping the filling in pancakes), especially since its implementation does not require high qualifications and work experience.

To increase the material interest of workers, their wages may consist of two main parts - salary and bonus. The latter is charged depending on the volume of production (for example, overfulfillment of the plan). However, this should not go to the detriment of product quality. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out constant monitoring at all stages of production - from the acceptance and preparation of raw materials to the packaging and marketing of finished products. At first, control can be carried out independently, being engaged in, inter alia, maintaining documentation and organizing the shipment of products. To reduce the risk of theft at work, it is recommended to equip the workshop with video cameras. Pleasure is not cheap, but in the end you will save more and, most importantly, the quality of your products will not suffer.

Saving in order to increase profits and reduce production costs can be done on everything except quality and employees. For example, utility costs can be reduced by introducing an economy mode at the enterprise. Make sure that the equipment does not work in vain (for example, when the dough and fillings are ready, and the employee is distracted). When purchasing new equipment, suppliers offer installation and debugging services. The specialist can adjust it properly, which will reduce energy consumption. The same applies to water, especially since the payment for it for enterprises is much higher than for the population. The average water consumption in such a workshop is about 10 cubic meters per month.

But perhaps the most important is the management of sales of finished products. If your product range is wide enough or, in addition to pancakes with various fillings, you are also going to produce other frozen semi-finished products, then you should think about opening branded outlets or pavilions in the market and grocery stores.

This method of implementation requires additional substantial costs, since you will have to negotiate directly with the owners of other stores, rent an area, hire sellers, manufacture and brand refrigeration equipment (its maintenance and repair, if necessary, will also be yours). With a small assortment, it is better to work directly through wholesalers.

A promising area of ​​work is cooperation with catering enterprises. But you must offer them not only the optimal combination of quality and price, but also guarantee timely and regular deliveries of your products. It is worth noting that cafes and restaurants accept pancakes not so willingly as semi-finished meat products, so to work in this direction you will have to expand your assortment.

Frozen spring rolls, like other semi-finished products, require special conditions of storage, transportation and sale. If it is not difficult to solve the problem with storage and transportation, then the situation with implementation is somewhat different. In grocery stores, freezing chests are set by suppliers. Of course, direct and indirect competitors will not be delighted if they see your products in refrigerators. You can offer to install the lari at your own expense, but usually in small shops that have been working for a long time there simply is not enough space for this.

In such a situation, it is recommended either to look for distribution companies that independently deliver products, or to negotiate with bases selling frozen semi-finished products. The disadvantage of this option is the need to provide intermediaries with an additional discount on the wholesale price (about 15%). And they often take the goods for sale with a deferred payment, which is completely disadvantageous to small producers, who must ensure uninterrupted supplies and regularly purchase raw materials.

So, we calculate the approximate costs of production. They consist of the cost of renting industrial, warehouse and household premises, the cost of equipment and raw materials (due to the development of various formulations, they are trying to optimize these costs all the time by increasing the moisture absorption of minced meat and improving its taste), payroll, taxes and various deductions.

Semi-finished products manufacturers are trying to introduce at least three price categories into their product range - cheap, medium and expensive. The last segment accounts for the least amount of sales (10-20%), the second - 20-30%. But cheap pancakes will be sold best (60-70% of total sales).

However, a lot depends on the region, positioning and marketing. But we give averaged data. Immediately lay down unforeseen expenses - defects, fines, equipment repairs, downtime, etc. (usually in the amount of 5% to 10% of the company's profit).

About a thousand rubles a day will be required for gasoline (provided that you have your own transport). Ideally, of course, it is advisable to negotiate with suppliers so that they themselves will bring you raw materials, and wholesale buyers themselves will take the finished products. But it is unlikely that you will be able to achieve such working conditions in the first months.

Profit shop with a production volume of 450-500 kg of products per day is about 300 thousand rubles. Net profit after all deductions will be approximately 180 thousand rubles. Keep in mind that here we do not lay out advertising costs, although it will be needed if you intend to work with retail outlets directly.

In the future, when your company reaches the level of self-sufficiency and starts to make stable profits, you can think about business development and expand the range, including various mixes, minced meat, steaks, manti, pasties, meatballs, meatballs, zrazy, cutlets, etc. .

Liliya Sysoeva

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