Glass containers and glass products market overview
Currently, more and more products (especially food) are packed in glass containers. Glass is considered more convenient (glass is not subject to corrosion, special “ground” stoppers do not allow moisture or air to penetrate, etc.), in some cases (for example, vinegar, oils, etc.) - technologically determined, and sometimes even a sign of an elitist or branded (compare, for example, coffee in specially shaped glass jars and tin cans or cardboard packaging).
Glass is also used in non-food industries: glass containers often serve as containers for dyes, solvents, caustic liquids; there is a huge range of glassware - plates, glasses, dishes, etc .; decor items (vases, figurines, ashtrays) plus various specific items such as buttons, laboratory equipment, portholes, mosaic fragments and fragments of stained-glass windows, light filters and much more. And the cost of each of these items is several times higher than the cost of flat glass, if you count them by weight ratio.
Therefore, the manufacture of non-sheet-shaped glass products can be considered a rather profitable business in the segment: at much lower equipment costs than the sheet-glass factory, the cost of the products is much higher.
Although there is one point: in absolute numbers, for example, the production of glass containers is inferior to the production of sheet glass, the latter is much more in demand because window glass is only possible with a new package, while, for example, bottles and cans are often reused .
However, the payback, profitability and the ratio of the unit cost of production with its selling price in the production of glass containers and related products is much higher than in the production of flat glass.
The best indicators are only in the manufacture of artistic glass products, however, long and firmly taken at the mercy of small artisanal and semi-artisanal glass-blowing and engraving firms and private owners.
However, a huge advantage of the production of glass containers is independence from the geographic and economic region of the country: if sheet glass factories are usually tied to a source of raw materials to minimize costs, glass production due to greater backlash between the difference in cost and selling price can neglect this.
In addition, due to the relatively small raw material capacity, such an enterprise will in most cases cost, or at least cover at least half of the consumption of raw materials from the market for secondary glass raw materials.
In addition, if we consider the option of working for specific orders, it is possible to provide for the manufacture of products from customer’s glass, either on a full prepayment basis and somewhat elongated - for the time the necessary materials are delivered - the production cycle.
However, if you release a popular product - for example, bottles with a capacity of 0.5-0.75 liters or cans for a disposable or reusable lid with a volume of up to 3 liters, then the sales market will exist on its own: the demand for such things is very high and depends only on the population region, if we talk exclusively about the local market.
So, opening your own glass packaging business can be considered one of the least expensive and most risk-free, at least when it comes to non-food production.
Glass production technology
The raw materials for the production of glass containers can be ordinary quartz sand according to GOST 22551-77 (with technological additives: dolomite flour according to TU 5716-005-21079129-00; soda ash technical according to GOST 5100-85; sodium sulfate technical according to GOST 6318-77; chalk technological in accordance with TU 95-2317-91; alumina in accordance with GOST 30558-98; sodium nitrate or sodium nitrate technical in accordance with GOST 828-77; and bleach: cerium oxide, selenium, cobalt oxide or substances that impart color: ferrous compounds, manganese oxide, chromium oxide, uranium oxide, cobalt oxide, nickel oxide, oxide urmy or sodium sulfide, colloidal silver, copper oxide, colloidal gold, perezhzhonnaya bone mixture of fluorspar and field), or any color cullet simple.
As you might guess, the second option for the production of glass containers is much simpler, but somewhat more risky: glass combat may not be enough for full-scale production, so in the ideal case, equipment for processing silica sand into glass should be purchased - it also works with secondary raw materials. Actually, further, in the section “Equipment for the production of glass containers”, such a case will be described.
The production of glass containers and glass products themselves can be divided into several stages, described below.
The first step can be considered the storage of raw materials and its supply to the receiving hoppers of the glass line.
At the second stage, the raw materials (it doesn’t matter if it is a cullet or a mixture - a mixture of glass components: sand, dolomite, soda, etc., or a mixture of both) goes from the receiving hoppers to consumables, where the charge components are dosed by weighing batchers in certain proportions and mixing of the components of the mixture in the mixers, in the case of cullet, its preparation, and in the case of using mixed raw materials, mixing cullet with the mixture.
At the third stage, the charge is fed (cullet, mixture of batch and cullet) into the furnace compartment.
On the fourth - loading the charge (cullet, mixture of mixture and cullet) in a glass melting furnace using special automatic loaders. At the fifth stage, the glass melt is cooked in a glass melting furnace and the subsequent preparation of the glass melt for molding in feeders.
At the next, sixth stage, the products are molded in glass-forming machines, that is, in fact, giving them the final shape.
The seventh stage is the heat treatment of products in annealing furnaces, which often use a special department of a glass melting furnace.
At the last stages, visual quality control of glass products and technical control in the laboratory are carried out with subsequent testing for heat resistance, annealing quality, pressure; packaging of finished products (e.g. in boxes or pallets); transportation to the warehouse or to the customer.
The premises, personnel and equipment for the production of glass containers
To compile a complete technological line for the production of glass containers, the following equipment and units will be required:
- feed channel; electrical control of the feed channel;
- feeder and “scissors” for cutting molten (liquid) glass;
- automatic press on several forms; adjustable press system;
- hydraulic press station;
- air cooling system of the forming machine;
- a system for extracting a pressed product from a forming machine;
- transmission line (transportation) of product halves (and the majority of glass products belong to two halves);
- electronic press control system and electric transportation system;
- system for supplying raw materials to the machine for forming;
- equipment for the automatic molding of glass blocks into the number of molds corresponding to the number of molds used in the automatic press;
- an automatic unit that receives products after connecting glass blocks;
- glass block transportation line after connection;
- ejector in the annealing furnace;
- the annealing furnace itself;
- gripping mechanism - product pusher (after applying paint, if staining is used);
- automatic electrical connection control system;
- drying unit for drying paint (if staining is used);
- automatic paint application unit;
- equipment, grinding and washing glass, and some other small units.
Regarding the annealing furnace, a few words should be said separately. As you can see, the molds and the furnace are not included in the delivery of the glass products production line. Molds are ordered separately in accordance with the sketches and samples of the customer, for each type of product - separately.
The furnace must first be built of refractory bricks - although the type of supply under consideration implies this, but then the production time of the line, taking into account the construction of the furnace, will be 3 months.
Type of furnace - regenerative, flowing with a horseshoe-shaped flame direction. Structurally, the furnace consists of a cooking pool, a duct, a production pool, burners, regenerators and smoke removal systems (exhausts), heating, ventilation, cooling the pool and supplying (pumping) air for fuel combustion.
The final cost of equipment for the production of glass containers is 2.216 billion yuan, which in terms of rubles at the current exchange rate is about 106 million rubles. Taking into account energy costs of 1200 kW and design capacity of 28.8 tons per day (actual production may be slightly lower - by about 5%), the price of the issue is relatively small.
The maintenance staff consists of 5 people per shift (for maximum productivity, three-shift work is the best option), of which one will be the foreman in one person.
The only drawback to the manufacture of glass products is spatial requirements. The production space of the right size is difficult to find for rent, especially in large cities - sometimes it is easier to build a plant.
Equipment only requires a workshop with a length of 100 m and a width of 36; Thus, its area will be 3600 square meters. m
Annealing furnace and drying chamber should be in a separate, but adjacent to the production room; the area required for their placements is 2700 square meters. m
Thus, the total area of the plant will be 6300 square meters. m - and this does not include the area for warehouses - finished products and raw materials and the packaging workshop.
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Footage of the production of glass containers