The constant growth in demand for spunbond, as experts say, is about 40% per year, which is not surprising. For the production of non-woven materials using spandbond technology, various types of fiber-forming polymers with a wide molecular weight distribution are used, including polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene and various combinations thereof, the most common of which is polypropylene and polyethylene. The popularity of polypropylene for the production of spunbond is due to the fact that thanks to it, a more dense distribution of fibers in the fabric is obtained, which, in turn, ensures high processing of fibers in terms of kilogram of raw material.
Since polypropylene yarns are very durable, the material based on them has high wear-resistant qualities, resistance to various organic media, moisture, rot. It is light in weight, easy to use (it can be cut into canvases of any shape and size), does not require special storage conditions, is non-toxic (and, therefore, its production does not harm the environment). Non-woven fabric made using spunbond technology has a different surface density - from 14 to 600 grams per square meter. meter. In addition, it can be painted in various colors and shades with special dyes.
Non-woven terra-bonded fabric has the widest application. Disposable clothes, disposable bedding, disposable slippers and shoe covers, medical masks, protective caps and caps, disposable underwear, shirts, etc. are sewed from it. These products are widely used in medical institutions, in hairdressing salons, beauty salons, massage rooms and solariums. . Spunbond also found application in the manufacture of furniture, leather goods, workwear, in the clothing industry, in agriculture (as a covering material to accelerate plant growth), in the construction industry (as an insulating material for wind, hydro, vapor barrier walls, facades and roofs ) When using various additives at the production stage, additional useful characteristics are given to it - antistatic, moisture-absorbing, or, conversely, moisture-repellent, antibacterial, etc., which greatly expands the scope of its application.
Spunbond nonwoven fabric manufacturing technology involves several steps. First, the preparation of polymer raw materials is carried out with its subsequent supply to the smelter. Preparation involves unpacking bales, thorough cleaning of impurities and objects, loosening the fibers, weighing when making a mixture of fibers in compliance with a given dosage, thorough mixing. Depending on the technological process and equipment parameters, it is equipped with continuous production lines, which allows to optimize the production process.
At the next stage, the polymer is melted and the melt is filtered, after which the melt is fed to a spinneret assembly, where the fibers are formed. A die is a metal plate made of heat-resistant steel with holes through which molten polymer is pressed to form filaments. These plates differ in the number of holes, their diameter and even shape. The diameter may be from 250 to 1200 microns.
At the next stage, the fibers are stretched and laid on a moving conveyor belt, forming a single web. The drawing procedure can be carried out in two ways - aerodynamic or mechanical. The aerodynamic method has become more widespread in modern production. It consists in stretching the threads under the action of high-speed air coming from the ejector. When drawn, the threads cool and become strong. The threads leaving the ejector are stacked on the conveyor.
Since the threads in the nonwoven fabric are not intertwined, they must be fastened together. This can be done in several ways: needle-piercing, thermal bonding on the calender, by chemical impregnation of the thread with binders, water-jet bonding, thermal bonding with hot air. Most often, spunbond production uses needle piercing and thermal bonding on a calender. Many important characteristics of the finished fabric depend on the chosen method of fastening the threads in the canvas, which determines the scope of its further application. For example, thermal bonding on a calender is used for paintings with a density of not more than 150 grams per square meter. meter, and for denser paintings (with a density of up to 600 grams per square meter), the needle-piercing method of bonding is used.
One of the main people in such a production is a technologist, although it will not be easy to find such a specialist. Large manufacturers are trying to constantly improve the technologies used for the production of spunbond nonwoven materials by producing bicomponent materials that have the properties of both of the original polymers. These include, for example, SMS materials (spandbond - meltblown - spanbond). Unlike spunbond technology, meltblown (spunbond technology) involves the formation of fibers by blowing molten polymer with hot air immediately on the conveyor table. Of particular note is the direction for the production of non-woven materials from recycled fibers.
The organization of such an enterprise will require sophisticated high-tech and expensive equipment. The main equipment includes a line for the production of nonwoven materials, warping machines, carding and plucking machines, quilting machines, needle punching machines. A special line is required for the production of nonwoven fabric using the spandbond method. Its dimensions are 12 by 15 by 12 meters (length / width / height), the maximum diameter of the winding is 1200 mm, power consumption is 700 kW h / t of fabric.
Most equipment is purchased in China and Taiwan. A complete set of a medium-sized plant produces at least one plant for the production of non-woven materials of “spunbond” methods with a capacity of 3000 tons per year (with a material width of 3.2 meters), an extrusion-type laminator with an irrigation capacity of 850-1000 tons per year, two-color frexographic a printing machine, uncoilers in commodity rolls (at least two pieces), loaders for 1.5 and 3 tons, other production and utility equipment.
To place this equipment will require a room under the workshop with an area of 2000 square meters. meters with road and rail access roads and a crank. To open such a plant will need at least 100 million rubles. The project payback period with the specified production volumes and the presence of sales markets is about four years. Non-woven materials are sold to large construction, agricultural and various wholesale companies, sold through wholesale markets.
The number of contractors of a large manufacturing enterprise is more than one hundred. The annual sales volume of a large plant exceeds 200 million rubles, and the net annual profit is 40 million rubles (20% of revenue). You can open production from scratch or purchase an already functioning enterprise. The cost of such a business is about 140 million rubles. Since non-woven material is universal, its sales are practically independent of the seasonality factor, as is the case with other specialized materials (for example, construction or decoration).
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