Despite all the debate about the benefits and harms of soybeans, the consumption of products with its content is growing every year both in our country and abroad. Therefore, the production of soy products can be a great idea for a successful business with great potential for growth. Entrepreneurs understand this, and the number of soybean processing companies is increasing every year. True, this business has its own shortcomings and nuances that need to be considered if you want to try your hand at this industry.
Many scientists are studying the issue of the effect of soy on the human body and its health. As a result, the benefits of soy products have been scientifically proven, while no negative effects of eating soy products during the studies have been identified. Moreover, soy is an extremely important product in the human diet. As you know, the menu of modern man is characterized by a lack of protein. Its deficit is 25-26%. Thus, each Russian on average does not get about 0.6 grams of pure protein per day per 1 kg of human weight. In total, the protein deficit in our country is about 850 thousand tons per year, according to experts of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Other experts believe that this figure is too low, and the real figure reaches 1 million tons or more.
The traditional sources of protein are meat, eggs, milk, fish and bread. But soy is especially rich in protein. Moreover, its production requires less investment, therefore, more profitable. For example, specialists cite the following data: when soybean is cultivated, 1 hectare of arable land provides 5, 494 man-days for protein needs, while when growing wheat this figure is 2, 166 man-days, rice and corn - 1, 909 man-days, and when fattening dairy herds of cattle - 583, when feeding poultry - 457, pigs - 318, when fattening cattle for meat - 190. Therefore, soy is much more profitable in production from an economic point of view. Soybeans have a high nutritional value and are rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, PP, P, K, D, C. An important factor - soy products with all their high nutritional value are much cheaper than other products containing protein.
The market has a wide selection of soy products: soy milk, soy cheese (tofu), fermented bean curd (tempe), burgers, soy puddings, soy cocktails, soy substitutes for meat, poultry and fish, soy flour, soybean oil, soy concentrates, soy isolate protein. Soy is actively used in the production of dairy, confectionery and bakery products, soft drinks and baby food. True, so far Russia is significantly inferior in terms of production and consumption of soy products to countries such as China and Japan. However, analysts are confident that in the domestic market, soybeans have a great future.
Soya is one of the adaptable crops, but it is far from grown in all regions of Russia. Initially, soybean grew in six major agricultural areas in the Far East: the Amur Region, Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories. In principle, experts believe that soy is quite possible to grow in the south of Russia. But here, in addition to the inappropriate climate, there is another problem - the lack of free cultivated areas that are occupied by wheat and other grains. As a solution to this problem, it is proposed to use abandoned or decommissioned agricultural land, but this requires much more money. Soybean, which is grown in the Far East and makes up three quarters of the country's gross harvest, is partially sold to China, and the rest is processed and consumed locally, since it turns out to be more expensive to transport than to grow it.
Conventionally, the soybean market can be divided into several separate segments: the soybean market, the market for soybean processing products (oil, flour, texture, isolate, concentrate, meal for livestock, etc.), the market for finished soybean products (soy mayonnaise, cheese, milk etc.). Growing soybeans for the above reasons is a rather complicated and costly business, so it is better for young companies to choose a different sector - for example, soy-based products. For example, soy milk perfectly replaces natural cow's milk, moreover, it is used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for intestinal insufficiency, food allergies, dysbiosis, etc. Bean curd, in spite of its fresh taste, has a high nutritional value and high protein content (the latter It is twice as high as regular milk curd and at the same time 15 times cheaper than it at cost). To improve the taste, various seasonings, decoctions and slices of vegetables, garlic, etc. are added to the bean curd. Bean cheese (tofu) is a pressed bean curd that is marinated in salt water with the addition of various spices and herbs, herbal infusions, garlic, vanilla, ginger, cinnamon, mushrooms, ham, onions, etc. This product is also not inferior in its nutritional properties to traditional cheeses and has a good taste. Cheese soy pasta resembles cream cheese. They add mushrooms, crab, squid, various herbs, and chocolate pastes are made on their basis. But soy mayonnaise is especially in demand among consumers, which has a balanced number of calories in its composition and has a rich and at the same time unsharp taste.
The wider your product range will be, the better. But in this case, you will have to cover several areas at once: the manufacture of dairy and sour-milk products from soy, soy meat and meat products, soybean oil, soy mayonnaise. Separate equipment will be required to produce each of these types of soy products. For example, the equipment for a dairy production line includes a grinder, a press filter, a hand refractometer, an automatic electric steam generator. The productivity of such a plant is 70-100 liters per hour. The consumption of dry soybean reaches 3 kg per cycle, and the milk yield is 23-33 liters, the cheese yield from 20 liters of milk is 5 kg, the mayonnaise yield is 13-14 kg in two hours, the output of other products (ketchup, jam, sauce, cream, etc.) - 10-12 kg per cycle. Such equipment can be served by one operator. To install it, you need about 15 square meters. meters. Its cost is, on average, 100 thousand rubles.
For the production of soy-based meat products, you will need a textured soy protein production line, which consists of a twin-screw extruder, a five-layer drying oven and pneumatic conveying. Such equipment allows producing up to 150 kg of products per hour. It requires about 40-45 square meters. meters to accommodate. To service it, at least two operators are required. The cost of the line is 350 thousand rubles.
For the production of soybean oil will require a special oil press. The domestic market presents equipment of both Russian, European, and Chinese production. It allows you to produce about 600 kg of products per hour, and its placement will require 20 square meters. meters. One person can handle the maintenance of such a machine. The approximate cost of equipment for the manufacture of oil will be 600 kg per hour.
A great advantage of soybeans over other products is that this raw material can be stored for a long time and does not require special storage conditions (for example, low temperature, such as meat and dairy products), which reduces the cost of organizing the warehouse.
As a rule, a separate line is used for the production of dairy products from soy, but the production of soy meat and oil can be combined in order to save space and time. Meat is made from oilcake obtained after squeezing the oil from soy and ground into flour. However, it should be noted that in the production of meat products based on soybeans, the same equipment is required as in the production of conventional meat semi-finished products and sausages. TU is also being developed for soy products, and the recipe is being approved, so in this case you will need experienced technologists. And it is quite possible that all the costs of developing formulations, obtaining documents, setting up production will not pay off, because consumers are still distrustful of soy products (especially substitutes for natural meat) and there is a high risk that your products simply will not be in demand . Of course, it is desirable that soy meat is included in your assortment, but you should not make this direction the main one.
So, for the production of dairy products based on soy, soy meat and butter, you will need special equipment with a total value of 900 thousand - 1 million rubles. Separately, it will be necessary to purchase lines for packaging products (another about 100 thousand rubles). Registration of all documents, registration of a legal entity, development and approval of recipes and technical conditions will cost another 200 thousand rubles. Renting production facilities (about 250 square meters) costs about 70-140 thousand rubles per month, depending on the region and the condition of the premises. To reduce costs, it is more profitable to place production on the periphery. Salary fund (accountant, technologist, 5-6 operators, packer, driver) - about 150 thousand rubles per month. The cost of electricity will be about 50 thousand rubles. Add to this the cost of the first batch of raw materials - about 130 thousand rubles. With a daily rate of production of dairy products (pastes, sauces, etc.) in the amount of 120 kg and a wholesale price of 50 rubles per 1 kg of finished products, the income will be 180 thousand rubles per month. With a daily rate of production of soy meat in the amount of 350 kg and a wholesale price of 30 rubles per 1 kg of finished products, the income will be about 300 thousand rubles per month. With daily production of oil in the amount of 200 liters and a wholesale price of 42 rubles per 1 liter, the income from its sale will amount to 250 thousand rubles. In total, the total income of the enterprise that produces such products in such volumes reaches 720 thousand rubles (net profit will be more than two times less). The profitability of soybean production is very high and amounts to about 45%. Thus, you can recoup your investment already during the first six months of work.
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