Straws are products that are made in the form of rounded sticks with a diameter of 8 mm and a length of 10 to 28 mm from wheat flour of the highest and first grades. These products are familiar to each of us since childhood. Despite its simplicity, straws do not lose their popularity today. Manufacturing these products can be a great idea to start your own business.
There are several types of straw. The most widespread was Kiev, sweet, salty and vanilla straws. It can be sold both by weight and in packaged form. In the latter case, the straw is usually packed in sealed plastic bags. Previously, it was also packed in cardboard or paper boxes and packs, but now this packaging is extremely rare due to its high cost compared to polyethylene.
The straw is produced in accordance with GOST 11270-88 “Bakery products. Straw. General specifications. " The production process of products beloved by everyone includes several main stages: acceptance, storage and preparation of raw materials for production, preparation of dough, molding of dough pieces, welding of dough pieces, baking dough pieces, packaging and storage of finished products. The dough for the preparation of sweet or salted straws is prepared in a random way from flour with elastic and elastic gluten (its content should be at least 32 - 35%). To knead the dough, kneading machines are used, which are suitable for dough with a low humidity of 32 - 43% (for example, models TM-63, T2-M-63, etc.). In this case, the dough can be batch or continuous. In the latter case, all the ingredients for preparing the dough are first prepared: flour, pre-melted margarine, sunflower oil, sugar solution, poppy seeds, as well as a mixture of yeast, vanilla essence, salt and water, prepared in advance in a separate container with continuous stirring. To start the production and replacement of liquid yeast with a deterioration in its lifting force, pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast are first recommended to be bred under sterile conditions on malt wort, and then in open chunks with flour brewing. Then they are all placed in a dough mixing machine, where they are mixed until an elastic and homogeneous mass is obtained. The finished dough is transferred from the dough mixing machine to cutting using a moving conveyor. With batch kneading, the order of work is slightly different. In this case, all the raw materials are loaded in a certain order: first, sugar or sugar solution, brine, water, previously diluted yeast in the water, melted margarine, etc. are fed into the kneading machine. And only then flour is added there with constant stirring. In order to reduce the cost, many manufacturers add to the dough up to 10% crumbs from straws by weight of flour.
The duration of fermentation is forty minutes for all types of straws, except for vanilla. For vanilla - fifteen minutes. The duration of the batch is 10-15 minutes. At the same time, the technologist without fail monitors the initial temperature of the test, which should not exceed 29 ° C (and preferably 26-27 ° C). If the temperature of the dough is higher, the mass will not be elastic enough and will simply tear during further processing.
The next step is the molding, welding and baking of straw. Forming is also carried out automatically - using special equipment (for example, lines 29-81M, etc.). The prepared dough is laid in a funnel above the screw, which subsequently pumps it out of the matrix. It is necessary to ensure that the funnels of the forming machine are filled with dough for half their volume. At the beginning of the work, the first two portions of the dough are usually made of higher humidity (38-39%) and loaded into the funnels immediately after kneading. As a result, the dough is divided into several thin and endless flagella. These harnesses are conveyed by a conveyor belt to a mesh conveyor, which moves in a bath filled with a one percent solution of sodium bicarbonate. Under its influence, a characteristic golden hue forms on the surface of the straw. Please note: the temperature of the soda solution should be between 80 and 90 ° C. When deviating to a lower side from the recommended temperature regime of welding, the test tows can stick to the conveyor grid or to each other, as a result of which the batch will be damaged. The soda solution must always be kept at the same level. After the change, the solution must be drained, the bath thoroughly rinsed with water and refilled with fresh soda solution.
Welding is carried out directly when the conveyor is moving and takes no more than a minute (but more often 26 - 27 seconds), after which the workpieces are transferred to the conveyor belt leading to the conveyor furnace. If we are talking about the production of salt straw, then at this stage, prior to baking, it is sprinkled with coarse salt, and Kiev - with poppy seeds. Straws are baked in a continuous through-oven for 9-10 minutes at a temperature of 220-230 ° C. Finished products are broken into sticks of a certain length using a mechanical cutter or on the fold of a hearth across the width of the area, then placed in packs or boxes (if it is planned to sell weight) that are installed on the conveyor. It is recommended to install a fan over the conveyor to speed up the cooling of straw after baking. Finished products should be stored in a dry ventilated area.
For the production of straws, a special continuous line will be required, which consists of a two-shaft dough mixer, a twin-screw press for forming dough bundles, a cooking unit, an electric oven and a control panel. An electric motor with a variator and a worm gearbox, a hopper with two screw chambers ending in a matrix through which the bundles are extruded, is mounted on the press frame. The cooking unit is a soda bath with a mesh conveyor, on the frame of which there is also an electric motor, as well as units for cutting the harnesses and sprinkling them with salt or poppy seeds. An electric straw baking oven consists of separate isolated sections interconnected, in which electric heaters are located, as well as a drive and a tension drum, a mesh hearth, a mesh cleaning unit, an exhaust duct with a fan. The vapor-air medium is removed from the baking chamber by a fan mounted between the first and second zones.
The productivity of such a semi-automatic line is 1, 500 kg of products per day (the exact figure depends on the diameter of the nozzles). To service such a line requires 3-4 people. The cost of equipment is 1.2 million rubles. Such a line can be purchased both new (produce such equipment in Ukraine), as well as used. In the latter case, the cost will be from 800 thousand rubles (add to this the cost of transportation and the cost of commissioning). The approximate length of such a line is 12 meters. To accommodate it, you will need spacious equipment with an area of at least 150 square meters. meters plus areas for warehouses for raw materials and finished products, utility and household premises.
When drawing up a business plan, also consider the cost of manufacturing the package. In this case, there are two most common options - a plastic package with prints printed directly on it and the same package of transparent cellophane with a paper label attached. The latter option is more expensive, so less suitable for a small assortment. On the other hand, if you intend to produce several types of different products at once, it is easier and more profitable to order the same packaging and different types of stickers for it.
Although the assortment of such an enterprise is initially quite limited, it can be expanded to produce new types of the usual product - for example, straws in chocolate glaze (both with dark and white chocolate), with nut powder, in honey glaze, etc.
Starting capital for organizing the production of sweet and salted straws is from 1.5 million rubles. This amount includes equipment and rental of premises for the workshop and warehouses.
Finished products are sold through wholesale companies, retail chains, super- and hypermarkets, individual grocery stores, markets and kiosks selling confectionery and bakery products. It is best to search for customers directly (by calling), as well as placing ads in various publications and on the Internet, through their own website.
The profitability of such production is estimated at 28%.Sysoeva Liliya (c) www.clogicsecure.com - a portal to small business business plans and guides