Woolen fabrics have a number of undeniable advantages over other textile materials. For example, they are characterized by high elasticity, low creasing properties, good shape retention and good hygienic properties, despite their density, high heat-shielding properties and long wear. Woolen fabrics are used for sewing coats, uniforms, business suits, blouses and fabrics. And although the light industry is going through hard times in our country, the organization of its own factory for the production of woolen fabrics and rugs can be a good investment. And the lack of high competition in this segment is only an advantage.
The range of woolen fabrics is very wide. For their production, various types of wool are used - thin, semi-thin, semi-rough and rough sheep, goat and camel wool. In addition, secondary (i.e., reconstituted) wool, woolen garments and fumes, chemical fibers and yarns, and cotton yarn can be used. The most expensive dress and costume combed fabrics are made from fine wool wool. Australia is considered the supplier of the best wool from merino sheep. Sheep of the Cygean and Kuibyshev breeds are known for their relatively stiff and elastic coat. This raw material is used for the manufacture of coat and costume fabrics. Angora and Kashmir goats give a soft, shiny coat with little tortuosity, and goat fluff mixed with merino wool is used to produce fine felt and knitwear. Blankets, rugs, bedspreads and knitwear are made from camel wool. Depending on the type of wool used, the structure of the yarn used in weaving, and the method of its production, woolen fabrics are divided into worsted (combed) and woolen (fine-woolen and coarse-woven).
Worsted (combed) fabrics are produced from combed yarn, which consists of long, thin, semi-fine or semi-rough wool. Worsted fabrics have a smooth surface, have an open weave pattern. These fabrics are the lightest and thinnest among woolen. The range of combed suit fabrics includes high-quality Boston wool. In addition, there is a semi-woolen fabric of Cheviot and various types of costume fabrics of tights.
Fine-woolen fabrics are made from fluffy hardware yarn, which is made from short, fine, semi-fine and semi-rough wool. Such fabrics are characterized by increased softness, well retain heat. They are made plain, combined, double-faced, double-layer and twill weaves. Most of the fine-woven fabrics undergo a small roll, resulting in a small pile forming on their surface. Cheviot and tights belong to the fine-woolen. Their main difference from worsted materials is the fluffy surface, which slightly hides the weave pattern. Drapes are called heavy and dense fabrics of one and a half or two-layer weave with a strong bump and a ragged front surface. Fine-woolen cloths are single-layer heavily tumbled-down fabrics. Coarse-woolen fabrics are made from denser yarn, which consists of coarse short wool with an axle.
Also, the types of fabric vary in their fibrous composition. They can be pure-woolen (with a wool content of 90 to 100%) and half-woolen (with a wool content of 20 to 90%). Wool fabrics can also be multicomponent. This means that during their production several different types of fibers can be added to the wool at once (for example, lavsan, viscose, capron, etc.). Additional fibers are mixed with wool, screwed to it as threads of one of the systems or added in a combined way. Typically, cotton yarn, bulk yarn, or textured yarns are used as one of the yarn systems (warp or weft). In this case, the highest quality threads or yarn are displayed on the front surface of the fabric.
In the manufacture of multicomponent fabrics, both blending and screwing can be used. For the manufacture of woolen fabrics, yarns of various structures are used: single yarn, melange yarn, crepe twist yarn, shaped and textured yarns, yarn twisted in two or three folds. In all cases, the use of yarn has its own characteristics. As we mentioned above, other fibers may be present in the composition of the woolen fabric: cotton yarn, polyamide fibers (nylon), polyester fibers, etc. Their use can reduce the cost of the fabric and change its mechanical properties. Nitron and viscose fibers are becoming increasingly common. But while in most factories for the production of woolen fabrics, a classic blend of 55% polyester fiber and 45% wool is used. This combination is optimal, as polyester increases the durability and strength of the fabric.
So, as a raw material for the production of woolen fabrics, as a rule, wool of the first and second lengths is used (merino fleece wool, thin blended, semi-thin, goat hair, etc.). Since the main property of this raw material is fineness, it is precisely it that underlies the division of wool into “grades” and the assessment of its quality. These indicators should be considered when choosing suppliers.
Most factories buy raw materials directly from domestic livestock enterprises, as well as from foreign manufacturers. Kapron fiber is purchased at Russian chemical plants. In addition to wool and various fibers, auxiliary materials are also used in the production of woolen fabric. These include antistatic agents, oil lubricants, aniline dyes, detergents for washing fabrics, acetic and sulfuric acid, sodium chloride, etc. The quality of the raw materials that are being processed must meet all the requirements of the standards. It is evaluated by several indicators: weediness and dustiness, fineness, length, fat content, breaking load, etc.
Upon acceptance, the raw materials must undergo control, which prevents the entry into production of materials that do not meet the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation. This control is multi-stage and consists of passing several departments and inspections at once. First, raw materials are accepted and evaluated for quality directly by the raw materials department of the enterprise. Then they are checked by the color group, the chemical laboratory for production control and the technical control department. Simultaneously with the acceptance of the product, its packaging, packaging and labeling are checked. The results of the checks are documented, and the raw materials that have passed the control are sent on.
There are three main manufacturing sectors in a factory that produces woolen goods. At the spinning mill, yarns of various types are produced (types depend on the article of fabric). In the weaving industry, harsh fabrics are made from the produced yarn. And their final appearance and properties of the fabric are acquired in areas of finishing production. In turn, it carries out a number of operations at each production site. So, in spinning production, flashing, sorting, dyeing, mixing, carding, spinning are carried out. When woolen fibers are pulled, the wool is cleaned of dust, partially cleaned of mineral and plant impurities and loosened. For this, cultivating-bogging aggregates are used. When sorting from a batch of woolen fiber, sortings are removed - basic wool, brand, landfill, polypropylene yarns.
Bulkhead is carried out manually by sorters. Woolen fibers that have a natural grayish color are dyed in predetermined colors on dyeing machines. Then they are mixed with fibers of a different type, grade, color and condition on the mixing machines. This stage is called mixing. In the process, its fibers are evenly distributed throughout the mass of the mixture. During carding, a homogeneous and free from impurities fibrous material is obtained from the mixture, from which roving is then produced. For this, three-combing carding machines are used (about 15-20 of these machines are installed in medium-sized enterprises). The roving is obtained by spinning on ring spinning machines. They will also need about 20-25.
In the weaving industry, yarn is crushed, twisted, rewound, warped, emulsified, parted and snapped, steamed, weaving itself, cleaned and darned of the finished fabric. When threading, two or more threads are joined together to increase their length, cleanse from defects and increase packaging. For this, reed machines are used. To increase the strength and create a smooth surface of the yarn, it is twisted on twisting machines. To give the yarn special external effects, use separate equipment. To increase the length of the thread on the package and clean it of debris, knots, weaknesses, the yarn is rewound from ears to bobbins using winding machines. Warping of yarn is a winding on a package of a certain number of warp threads, according to the requirements established for this article. Most often, the warping method is used, in which the threads are wound in separate parts onto the warping drum of a warping machine. Emulsification of the bases can significantly improve the physico-mechanical properties of the yarn by applying an elastic film to it while increasing the moisture content of the fiber. For this, special equipment is used - the so-called warping machines, which transfer the basics from the warping drum to the navava. Finally, the strings of the foundations of the obtained navoi bind together. This operation is called parting and snapping. It can be carried out manually and on a loom using knitting machines.
When steaming, the weft yarn is treated with hot steam, as a result of which its quality is increased, and the likelihood of breakage is markedly reduced. Steaming chambers are used for steaming. They can be purchased or made independently. The penultimate operation carried out in the weaving industry is directly weaving on special machines. The number of such machines in the factory may exceed one hundred units. This allows you to achieve high performance. At the last stage, which is called cleaning and darning, the resulting harsh tissue is cleaned of nodes, examined for defects, which are then corrected or removed from the panel.
After weaving, the resulting severity is sent for finishing. On this site, several operations are carried out at once: roll, tissue inspection, washing, welding, carbonization, punching, neutralization, needle teasing, drying, cutting, steam processing, aging, sorting, measuring, weighing, marking, packaging. First, the harsh fabric is subjected to felling - shrinkage along the length and width of the warping machines. As a result of this operation, the material must comply with the parameters established by the norms of technological standards. After this, the fabric is sent for a control examination, where its size is measured and defects are determined. When washing the fabric with washing machines, fat components are removed from its surface, which remain on it during the previous stages. Teapot is an operation that allows you to remove internal stresses in the tissue, incorporated in previous transitions in the production of tissues. For this, walk-through devices are used. Since a small percentage of plant impurities still remains in the wool fabric, the textiles undergo carbonization at the finishing stage, as a result of which all impurities are burned out with a weak solution of sulfuric acid. Scorched plant impurities must be removed from the tissue. The remains are knocked out (knocked out) on a tow machine. Residues of sulfuric acid are removed from the fabric by neutralization on a passage apparatus. When needle-boring on needle-raising machines, the ends of the woolen fibers are removed to the surface of the fabric, which gives it a beautiful appearance and a pleasant texture. Since the previous types of treatments involve the use of moisture, the material is dried to remove it from the fabric.
Then the fabric again passes a control inspection, where its size is measured and defects are detected. Pile brought to the surface of the fabric is trimmed during the cutting process. And with steam treatment on a shrink machine, the woven fabric takes on a set size. Steam treatment is carried out with hot steam, therefore, after holding it, the tissues are allowed to mature until completely cooled. Finally, the finished fabric is sorted out on rolls with the participation of controllers, who evaluate it for compliance with GOST 358-82, and measure the length of the panel with an automatic measuring device. Finished fabric is weighed, packaged and labeled in accordance with GOST R50195-92, 878-88. Before the fabric arrives at the warehouse, it passes selective control according to physical and mechanical parameters for the content of wool fiber, conditional surface density, breaking load, number of threads per 10 cm, change in linear dimensions after soaking.
So, the production of woolen fabrics is a complex multi-stage process with constant monitoring of product quality. To set up your own factory, you will need the following equipment: a shelling machine, a mixing chamber, a layer selection device, a four-strand machine, a spinning machine, a winding and warping machine, a loom, a dyeing machine, a centrifuge, a high-temperature drying machine, a full-length washing machine, a burner guide, a drying machine - widening machine, napping, shearing machine, fringing machine. Keep in mind that many machines and devices you will need several units. A set of new equipment from foreign (e.g., Italian) and domestic manufacturers will cost 1, 100, 000-1, 200, 000 euros. You can also purchase used equipment. In this case, it is quite possible to keep within 500, 000-550000 euros. Lay transportation costs (approximately 5% of the value of the goods), VAT 18%, duties (5-10%), customs expenses (0.5-1%). In addition, you will need premises for the organization of production and placement of warehouses. These areas are likely to have to be rented.
Technological costs include the purchase of raw materials (clean and raw wool), wages, payroll, depreciation, payment for electricity, gas. The staff of the enterprise includes the following workers: technical personnel, mechanics, production managers, shift managers, shop managers, designers, female workers, auxiliary workers, cleaners, movers, office workers (accountant, secretary, purchasing manager, sales manager, etc.) d.).
With investments amounting to tens of millions (the organization of average production will cost 60-65 million rubles), the payback period of the factory for the production of woolen fabrics leaves about seven years.
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