Sausages and sausages, so beloved by our compatriots, are sausages, which are made from chopped cooked meat of animals or poultry or its substitutes (substitutes, unfortunately, prevail in modern products). In shape, they are similar to small sausages of various thickness and length, but unlike other sausages, sausages and sausages are eaten after heat treatment (cooking or frying). These dishes go well with almost any kind of side dish, easy to prepare and at the same time have good taste.
Although, in general, competition in the domestic meat products market is very high both among large manufacturers of the federal scale and among small meat processing shops operating at the regional level, nevertheless, the production of sausages and wieners can become a profitable business with the opportunity for its further development and extensions. The main condition for its success is concern for the quality of your products. In addition, it is worth thinking in advance about how your products will differ from what is already on the market. According to experts, dishes made according to original or "home" recipes are most in demand among consumers. And here the advantage remains for small regional producers, as large companies are not able to establish such production. The latter is more profitable to produce a standard assortment, rather than experimenting with new recipes.
Under favorable circumstances, a small meat processing plant producing up to one ton of products per shift can pay for itself within the first six months of operation. The profitability of such production is estimated at 28%.
Technology for the production of sausages and sausages
Minced meat for sausages and sausages is prepared using the same technology as the minced meat used to make cooked sausages. First, raw meat in the workshop is crushed, as a result of which meat - muscle, connective and fatty tissue is separated from the bones. For boning, special equipment and tools are used - from boning knives (if this procedure is carried out manually) to circular saws and pneumatic tools (in mechanized production). This stage of meat processing is carried out on washing tables or hangers (hangers).
Then the raw material is subjected to venation (separation from the meat of small bones, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, films and contaminants) or, when using frozen meat, it is crushed on a crusher for frozen blocks, and then on a top with a diameter of the holes of the lattice 2-6 or 16- 25 mm
Most manufacturers use meat-boned meat (MDM) for the manufacture of sausages, which is carried out on a meat and bone separator (screw or piston). The fact is that manual separation of meat from bones is a rather complicated and time-consuming process, which significantly increases the cost of finished products. Mechanical deboning of meat using special equipment allows to increase labor productivity, reduce the loss of raw meat in the production process and, accordingly, reduce the cost of the product. During the mechanical processing that takes place on the separators, the pre-prepared meat and bone mixture is passed through a filter system, as a result of which the meat mass is separated and removed from the bones.
The resulting raw materials can be subjected to further heat treatment. Mechanical deboning of meat allows you to increase the yield of minced meat by about 20-25% compared with manual processing methods. At the same time, both the nutritional and biological value of the raw material, as well as its main technological and consumer properties, are preserved. The only minus of such processing is the presence in the minced meat (primarily from poultry meat) of small bone inclusions, the content and size of which are determined by the relevant standards. The permissible bone content in minced meat is, according to most standards, not more than 0.2%. The particle size should not exceed 0.5-0.7 mm.
Stuffing itself is prepared using a cutter, a special machine for chopping meat and mixing it with other components. Depending on the cutter model, this production step takes 8-12 minutes. Sausages in most cases are more delicate, as the meat used for them is minced more carefully than in sausages.
In order to lower the temperature of the minced meat, ice is used that is produced on an ice machine. The amount of ice required depends on the type of equipment, the duration of the crushing, the initial temperature of the raw materials and a number of other conditions. At the next stage of production, bacon (pork fat) is added to the minced meat, which is previously cut on a cutter. If this is provided for according to the recipe, then various boiled cereals, pieces of cheese, etc. are also added to the minced meat.
After the mince is ready, they are filled with sausage casings, which can be either natural or synthetic (made of polyamide). Synthetic casings are used for sausages, and for sausages, as a rule, a natural shell of thin and long pork or beef intestines is used. For this, both automatic sausage lines for filling, portioning, twisting and hanging on a hanger, and vacuum syringes with a twist are used. In the production of sausages at this stage, in addition to filling, they are also tied with thread on special equipment or manually.
Finally, sausages and sausages undergo heat treatment in continuous chambers with automatic control and regulation of temperature and humidity. Processing takes place in three stages: first, meat products are dried, then fried and scalded. After that, they are cooled in a shower with cold water or in an intensive cooling chamber (the latter option is more common), vacuum-packed in plastic bags, labels are glued and placed in corrugated cardboard boxes. All products are labeled by grade. Sausages have two varieties - the highest and the first, and sausages - the highest, first, second and third. In addition, the label should indicate information about the product, its composition and manufacturer.
Finished meat products are stored in warehouses in refrigerators with air humidity of 75-80% and a temperature of 2-8 ºС.
The choice of premises for the workshop
The minimum area of the meat processing workshop depends on the planned production volumes. For example, for a workshop with a capacity of about 500 kg of products per shift, a room with an area of 150-200 square meters will be required. meters. Such a large area is explained by the need for zoning of the workshop into several sectors, each of which is designed to perform certain technological operations.
The main technological zones of the meat processing plant include a low-temperature chamber used to store frozen raw materials, a cutting zone where boning, veining, grinding of raw materials and preparation of minced meat is carried out, a filling zone where sausage casings are filled with minced meat, a low-temperature chamber for cooling and storage of finished products, zone heat treatment.
In addition, it will be necessary to provide showers, changing rooms, lounges for staff and a place to store their belongings, pantries, an expedition room, a room for storing equipment. All zones should be connected by passages of sufficient width so that carts can be passed along them for transporting raw materials and semi-finished products. If necessary, the structure of the workshop and the “composition” of zones can be changed by combining some of them or changing the order of their location. For example, if a workshop buys meat not in carcasses, but in a cut-up form, then you can do without deboning. Accordingly, this zone will not be needed. True, the cost of raw materials in this case will increase.
Like any other food production, the meat processing workshop must comply with the current sanitary and technological standards, which in the future will allow you to get certified and get all the necessary work permits. For example, the production of meat products cannot be opened in residential buildings. Ideally, your workshop should be located in a room where previously there was a food production (not necessarily meat). This will significantly save on the repair and refurbishment of the area from scratch. Suitable options are easiest to find in the industrial areas of the city, but it is better if it is not so remote from the center and / or potential partners.
Experienced entrepreneurs advise opening meat processing workshops that produce a wide range of meat products at restaurants and hotels, as well as food chain stores. Of course, for the mini-shop for the production of sausages and sausages, the first option is not so relevant: such products are not in great demand in cafes and restaurants. As for stores, it is more profitable to work without reference to a particular distribution network. In addition, getting there for beginners will not be easy. At the very beginning of work, it is better to negotiate regular deliveries with individual stores, distributors and wholesale companies.
The height of the walls of the meat processing workshop should be at least two meters. For their decoration, light tile is used. It is also recommended to lay the floor with ceramic tiles, which will facilitate its cleaning, or cement.
If you plan to create a meat processing workshop from scratch, then one of the key moments of its organization will be technological design. It includes the preparation of technical specifications, in which you, as a customer, indicate all your requirements for future production and the products that you plan to produce. The design of the workshop is carried out by specialists of design firms who take into account both the wishes of the customer and sanitary and technological standards. The terms of reference for the design of the workshop includes a number of specific sections: a description of technological solutions (including communications), a list of the necessary equipment for the workshop and the characteristics of the raw materials used in the production, detailed information about the assortment.
The room for the workshop should be equipped with plumbing, sewer and electrical networks, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting, fire and security systems. The consumption of hot and cold water in a workshop with a capacity of about a ton of products per shift is 4 and 3.5 cubic meters. meters, respectively, and the installed capacity is 116.6 kW. Based on the terms of reference for designing the workshop from scratch, it is necessary to develop a production project, which is then agreed upon by the veterinary inspection. After obtaining all the necessary permits, you can finally begin to repair and equip the workshop itself.
When the workshop itself is put into operation, it will be necessary to go through a number of inspections and approvals - with the veterinary service, the State Epidemiological Supervision, and the fire inspection. After passing all the checks, you will have a veterinary certificate valid for one year, an act on the satisfactory sanitary condition of the workshop and an act of fire safety.
When the production works, it is necessary to issue a trial batch of products and receive a certificate of conformity for each type of manufactured product. In addition, you must have certificates for all raw materials used for production, including a cover for sausages and sausages, and even threads for dressing them. These documents can be obtained at authorized organizations that are involved in the certification of food production. In order to go through this procedure faster, many enterprises hire a veterinarian.
Meat processing equipment and raw materials
Depending on the assortment of your production, you will need the following equipment: grinders and meat grinders, meat mixers, meat cutters, meat massagers, injectors, syringes for stuffing shells, thermal smoke chambers, slicers, vacuum and thermal packaging machines, band saws and blades, etc.
The cost of equipment depends on the performance and manufacturer. So, for example, a medium-temperature workshop will require a low-temperature chamber (3 pcs will cost at least 100 thousand rubles), a spinning top (with a productivity of 1000 kg / hour the cost of the equipment will be from 60 thousand rubles), a cutter, (1000 kg / hour for 90 thousand rubles), a meat mixer (60 thousand rubles), a vacuum syringe (with a productivity of 1700 kg / hour cost from 60 thousand rubles), shpigorezka (with a productivity of 250 kg / hour from 60 thousand rubles), pneumatic clipper (from 27 thousand rubles), a band saw (from 20 thousand rubles), a heat chamber (for 300 kg from 100 thousand rubles), a chopper is frozen meat blocks (with a productivity of 2500 kg / h from 80 thousand rubles), an ice machine (140 kg per day from 100 thousand rubles), a vacuum-packing machine (from 60 thousand rubles), a slicer (from 10 thousand rubles ), a vacuum massager (from 58 thousand rubles). Auxiliary equipment includes technological tables (from 25 thousand rubles), technological tanks (from 30 thousand rubles), frames (from 30 thousand rubles), various equipment (total cost from 40 thousand rubles). The total cost of inventory and necessary equipment for a meat-processing workshop of domestic production will be from 1.2 million rubles. Do not forget about raw materials. For the production of one ton of products, about 1.5 tons of meat per bone will be required.
To ensure the smooth operation of the workshop will require a staff of up to ten people. This includes the technologist and operators (at least four per shift) working with the equipment. It will also require cleaners, handymen, managers for the purchase of raw materials and marketing of finished products, administrative staff, an accountant and drivers. In small industries, one employee combines two or three positions at once. The chief specialist in production is a technologist who develops recipes, calculates products, monitors the quality of raw materials and finished products, and monitors the progress of the production process. The total salary fund will be from 1.3 million rubles, depending on the region.
The profit of such a production enterprise can be from 30 thousand per month. The costs of opening a workshop are quite possible to recoup within 6-8 months with the established sale of finished products.Sysoeva Lilia
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