Among the fruits of cultivated trees, cherry was especially popular and spread. This small fruit with a large bone has been eaten by humans for many centuries, and in Russia this plant is grown in many regions. Cherry is very popular today, and it is hardly possible to encounter the fact that demand suddenly fell on these fruits. And therefore, the industrial cultivation of cherries allows the gardener to receive a stable and very good income; the owner can provide his cherry orchard, even if he is not engaged in any more crops. For each region of this country, their own varieties were developed that are suitable for the climate and soil of the region, which allows you to deal with cherries in the south of Russia, in its central part and even in some cold regions.
In the Russian language there are differences between cherries and cherries, and this difference also manifests itself in botanical science. So, cherry (Prúnus Cerásus) is a subgenus of the genus Plum (Prúnus), but cherry (Prúnus avium) is already a species of the genus Cherry. In colloquial speech, one can find a difference of a slightly different kind: sweet fruits are called sweet cherry, and sour are called sour, while not considering what kind of plant the botanical point of view refers to. In fact, cherries are a more specific taxonomic unit, agronomists, as a rule, are engaged in the species Prúnus avium, which is marketed as “sweet cherry”. In the case of “cherries”, several species can be used - from trees to relatively large shrubs - which, in turn, have their own varieties. You can also sometimes find a turtle - a hybrid of cherries and cherries, which was bred in the second half of the last century. Among other representatives of this subgenus, which have found their application in culture, one can distinguish bird cherry - an ornamental and fruit-bearing plant, and sakura - a purely ornamental plant, which has become one of the symbols of the Land of the Rising Sun. And if you don’t have to grow sakura in Russia (it’s not even a matter of climate, but the absence of a Japanese culture in which the plant is simply watched; it does not bring any practical benefits), then bird cherry can become a good culture that finds its place in the garden . Firstly, it smells very nice, secondly it is used as an ornamental plant, and thirdly, varieties that produce edible and tasty fruits (wild-type fruits are too tart) were bred. Thus, this subgenus gives several cultures at once, which you can deal with for your own benefit. If you wish, you can place several different types of trees in one garden, but then you need to take into account their location from each other, because these plants are inter-pollinated, as closely related.
If starting in a business begins from a cherry orchard, then you need to register as a business entity. The form specially designated in the legislation as “peasant farming” or peasant farms is best suited. If the garden will be located on an area of up to one hectare, then you can not register anywhere and conduct your activities as a personal subsidiary farm (LPH). If there is already another form of entrepreneurship (individual entrepreneur or legal entity), then you can continue your business within the framework of the registration already made. Since the cherry orchard is well combined with the cultivation of other diverse crops, it is likely that it will be part of a diversified economy, and here you need to initially determine which plants will be grown. For cherry itself and all closely related plants, the activity code is (OKPD 2) 01.25 Fruits of other fruit trees, shrubs and nuts. Under it, in principle, almost all fruit trees fall, except for grapes isolated in a separate encoding.
As for a multi-field farm, it’s nice to start growing your cherry orchard with the orientation that there will later be your own apiary. The plants of this subspecies are very good honey plants, so cherries can produce up to 35 kilograms of honey per hectare per season (of course, bees collect it). The combination of these two types of business increases the productivity of each of them individually - trees are faster and better pollinated, and insects collect more useful product. In this regard, if there is no apiary yet, then you can already begin to study this matter, but you need to remember that the cherry begins to blossom and bear fruit only in the third or fourth year of its growth (and at the same time only some specially bred varieties). Moreover, trees are rarely effective for more than 15 years, and after this time they are uprooted, making room for a new garden. That is, its own apiary will go well with the cherry orchard, but it is better to have other honey plants (for example, buckwheat) in addition to it. Indeed, after the destruction of the garden, which has become ineffective, it will only be possible to plant this area with cherry trees again after 4-5 years. The destruction of these trees can be combined with their sale for wood, as cherries are valued as a fairly good breed of wood.
Depending on the type and variety that will be grown, the place of the future garden is selected. If we consider a small garden, then about five hectares of land should be enough, this will allow us to harvest a good crop, and not spend too much effort and time on cherries alone. Cherry prefers light sandy loamy soils, which in most regions of the country can be rented for about 2 thousand rubles a year. Dear chernozem, renting for the cherry orchard is not necessary. That is, the garden will need 10 thousand rubles a year; but usually they are engaged in gardens directly on their own land due to the long period of growing and using trees. Elevated areas are selected for cherries, but at the same time protected from the north winds, which adversely affect the plants. Also, the plants of this subgenus are very photophilous, and although they bear fruit in the shade, you still will not have to wait for a good harvest. Trees are also very sensitive to the occurrence of groundwater, which should be located deeper than 2 meters from the surface of the earth. The proximity of water can lead to rotting of the roots and withering of the whole tree, which will bear fruit worse and die earlier.
Some varieties have their own characteristics, and you need to find out all of them from the seller, because cherries that are sensitive enough to improper planting may almost not produce a crop. Thus, a mistake at the very beginning of laying a garden can turn it, at best, into a decorative place, but not a fruiting garden.
It is better to buy seedlings in the early spring or in the early autumn. The fact is that plants need to be planted either in April or in October, the young cherry will tolerate winter when planted correctly. Cherry is considered a winter-hardy crop, but severe frosts may, if not destroy the plant, reduce its yield in the next season. Cherry seedlings can even be sold for three years, which allows you to get fruits in the shortest possible time. But this is possible only for some varieties and only large farms can grow seedlings for such a long time.
Purchased young plants are planted at a distance from each other, with the expectation that one tree will need about 25 m2, that is, up to 400 trees can fit on one hectare. In the case of bush forms, this indicator even increases, but in the case of large trees it decreases. Seedlings are brought into the soil taking into account the quality of the soil, and if it is too clay, then sand is added during planting. Planted trees are looked after as well as other fruit trees.
Cherry is very vulnerable to frost, and the vagaries of nature can destroy the flowers of this early flowering culture. To avoid the harmful effects of frost, they either throw snow under the plant or use the smoke method. Snow is transferred under the cherry so that the frozen water does not allow the roots to wake up, which delays the flowering period by about a week, this allows you to delay it until it becomes warm and there is no threat of a drop in temperature. Smoke is used for the same purpose - to save flowers from death - but involves burning plant debris in the garden, which gives a lot of smoke and little fire.
When this problem is solved, you need to take care of pollination of flowers. The fact is that in rainy or cloudy weather, pollinating bees unscrupulously pay little attention to cherry blossoms. To attract lazy insects, trees are sprayed with a solution of honey and water; the bees, having felt such an attractive aroma, will begin to work on pollination of this plant. Fertilize the cherry before fruiting with nitrogen, and in a small amount. Most of all, this plant requires phosphorus, which must be introduced much later. After phosphorus, potassium is introduced last, which should be significantly less than phosphorus, but more than nitrogen. In this case, the yield of trees will be the best.
It should also be noted that you can get your garden by not immediately purchasing such a large number of seedlings. If there are no funds to buy so many young trees, then you can buy a small amount of them, and then propagate the cherries in a vegetative way. To do this, use green cuttings, which are collected from the roots and subsequently transplanted. But not only your own garden can be obtained in this way; cherry cuttings retain their varietal properties, including yield and quality of fruits, so you can begin to independently engage in the cultivation and sale of seedlings. Sometimes this can make up a significant portion of the income; at the same time, cherry seedlings are bought not only by farmers and entrepreneurs, but also ordinary people who want to decorate their garden or get one or two trees for family consumption of cherries.
It is very important to constantly care for cherries, as it has many natural enemies that become agricultural pests. So, there are many specific diseases to which plants of the genus Plum are susceptible (which means the subgenus Cherry, among others), but there are microorganisms that parasitize only on this subspecies. Cherry is often the subject of adoration for many harmful insects that seek to devour leaves, fruits, and in other ways harm the plant, which is perceived as a source of tasty and healthy food. Of the fungal diseases, coccomycosis and moniliosis, which destroy flowers and branches, are especially harmful to cherries. Only fungicides are effective against these diseases. As for insects, in the absence of their natural enemies, trees will also have to be treated with insecticides.
It should be noted that cherries are a more resistant species to microorganisms than cherries. However, this does not eliminate the need to care for these plants, too. But numerous birds can become a serious misfortune. Drupe fruit was conceived by nature in order for its distribution to occur with the help of birds. Birds, eating a juicy fruit, swallow a bone, which passes through the digestive tract and leaves in a natural way at a great distance from the parent tree, being transferred by a bird. Therefore, these animals are very fond of such a plant and its juicy fruits, which poses a threat to the destruction of the entire crop. These agricultural pests can be controlled in well-known old ways by setting scarecrows, but this is only effective in the case of shrubs. The stuffed animals will not be visible through the crowns of the trees, so the birds will still eat around the tops of the trees. You can fight birds with the help of hung shiny and rustling ornaments that scare away some species of birds. The most effective way to deal with them is to buy special ultrasonic repellers that are not audible to humans, but affect other animals. On other animals - unfortunately, not only on pest birds, but also on poultry and even other farm animals. Companion animals may also be susceptible to ultrasound. Therefore, such systems can be installed if the garden is located at a considerable distance from the livestock farm.
For harvesting and caring for plants, you don’t need any special equipment at all. You can get by directly with transport to export the crop from the garden and place it in the warehouse, if not immediately to the market. At the same time, it is most effective to collect cherries with your hands, and here, quite likely, hired labor may be needed. The proximity of a village or village will help to resolve this issue, since no one will require a lot of money for their services. But still, this income item should be taken into account, because a too long harvest will deprive part of the crop, because ripened plants will begin to fall down. But the workers themselves should be at least a little verified people, because cherries can not only be stolen and taken out of the garden, but eat it right on the spot.
Plants of the subgenus Cherry are precocious. Therefore, the fruits are harvested already in mid-summer, although there are late, autumn, varieties. To get a full-fledged garden, you need 2 thousand seedlings per five hectares. The cost of a cherry seedling is about 300 rubles, but a cherry can cost 700 rubles. At the same time, one must not forget that some varieties are much more expensive. If we take the average price equal to 500 rubles, then the purchase of seedlings for the garden will require 1 million rubles. The yield of common varieties is about 40 kilograms per tree, but some "elite" varieties have yields 5-6 times lower, but the final cost of the fruit sometimes even exceeds the high-yielding varieties. If we take an average yield of 20 kilograms per tree, then in the end you can get 40 tons of the crop. The wholesale price can range from 50 rubles per kilogram of cherry, so the income will be 2 million rubles. Considering that seedlings are bought once every 15 years, we can say that growing cherries is a highly profitable business.
It is possible to sell harvested fruits not only in bulk by resellers, who will offer a very modest price (although they will pick up a large number of crops). A good option is the agricultural market, where prices can be several times higher than with wholesale. But there is a risk of not selling a significant portion of the harvested fruit. Therefore, you can consider the possibility of self-packing your cherry with its subsequent sale in minimarkets, supermarkets and hypermarkets. They can give a relatively high price and at the same time take a significant part of the crop. But such a sales channel is difficult to find, since not all owners of such networks are ready for cooperation. If the cherry turns out to be very good, large and tasty, then you can think about exporting fruits. This direction is not very well developed, and cherry is usually imported to Russia, and not vice versa, but you can try. It is also worth considering the option of selling frozen or dried fruits, which become the basis for the preparation of compotes and jelly. But it’s best to consider all the possible ways to sell cherries, using absolutely everything that is profitable.
Own cherry orchard is a rather profitable undertaking, but which should be combined with the cultivation of other plants due to the long period in anticipation of the first fruits. Serious financial investments in the purchase of seedlings, however, will pay off in one or two seasons.
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