It is difficult to find material used in construction more than crushed stone. Crushed stone is the basis for the production of concrete and products from it, laid in the foundation of buildings, used in road construction, including railway construction, as well as in the construction of dams and other hydraulic structures.
Crushed stone trade alone is capable of enriching not only individual enterprises, but also entire regions. And we can’t even talk about the production of crushed stone: crushed stone, despite its low cost, is one of the most cost-effective materials, since its cost is practically zero: it consists only of the wages fund of employees and rent for using a quarry or other source facility rubble stone.
Of course, this type of business as the production of crushed stone, as well as in others, has its drawbacks: of the most important, the geographical component should be noted - rubble stone and crushed stone can be mined far from all regions of the country, and seasonal - like other building materials Crushed stone sales are quite susceptible to fluctuations - following the actual construction season, which is interrupted on average for 5-6 months a year in most of Russia. Of course, there is no need to talk about the complete lack of sales in the winter season, but a significant reduction in the market is nevertheless observed - in different regions from 10-15 to 50-60%.
In the rest, crushed stone belongs to the category of the most problem-free products: it does not deteriorate when stored in the open air, is quickly sold, moreover, as a rule, in large volumes (in lots), and besides, technological conditions and tolerances (described in regulatory documents: GOST 8267 -93, GOST 8269.0-97, GOST 8269.1-97, GOST 22856-89, GOST 22263-76, GOST 26644-85, GOST 5578-94, GOST 25226-96, GOST 3344-83, GOST 18866-93 and GOST 7392 -2002) are very liberal and allow the production of crushed stone from a wide variety of breeds and even from construction waste - this type is called secondary crushed stone.
Manufacturing technology and equipment for the production of crushed stone
There is nothing complicated in the technology for producing crushed stone - it is obtained by crushing and sorting by size (fractions) of basalt, rock, gravel, limestone or slag rocks, as well as construction waste.
The main question of what kind of equipment for the production of crushed stone will be used is what raw materials the crushed stone plant will operate on. For example, if there are granite or limestone deposits of sufficient capacity (thickness, volume) in the business opening region, then you can open a regular plant.
But if such deposits are not found, and several less powerful deposits are scattered across the region, or, for example, there are several metallurgical or mining enterprises in whose territory slags or dumps accumulate for some time, or construction waste serves as an essential part of the raw material, then stationary equipment is not suitable for these purposes and you will have to use a mobile crushing complex.
The specifics of using this or that equipment is precisely in relation to a certain place or the possibility of quick moving and its deployment in another place. Fixed (stationary) equipment for the production of crushed stone is cheaper and more productive; it is serviced by fewer personnel and pays off faster - precisely because of the listed reasons.
However, it requires the erection or rental of a building, though non-capital, and the involvement of additional specialists - explosion engineers: blocks of raw materials (rocks) are usually obtained by the explosion of a monolithic rock. Of course, mobile production developing small deposits and quarries is not safe from this either. But carrying and transporting stationary equipment for the production of crushed stone (and it is subsequently inevitable - any deposit will ever be depleted) is a rather expensive and inconvenient process.
Mobile (mobile) equipment is less productive and at the same time several times more expensive, but does not even require the construction of non-capital buildings (with the exception of hangar garages for storing the equipment itself), "moves" under its own power, without involving special equipment. True, for its maintenance additional specialists are required - mainly truck drivers who will collect and transport finished products to the storage place.
To better understand the scale of prices, you should turn to specific figures. Consider the cost of medium-sized (up to 130 tons per hour) crushers for crushed stone of various types. The cheapest option is a jaw crusher worth only 420 thousand rubles. ($ 13670 at current rate).
The principle of its action is crushing, bending, abrasion of the rock between two plates (“cheeks”). One cheek is motionless, while the second - swinging - is set in motion by a drive mechanism. However, with all the seeming primitiveness and unpretentiousness of such a machine, in production, especially in large volumes, its cheapness and simplicity also have a downside: the movable plate is quickly worn away, so you have to swap it with a fixed one, and subsequently both cheeks are restored by hard alloy hardfacing.
Such wearing parts require either the availability of spare parts or sufficiently long interruptions in operation. True, for small industries this option is often optimal.
The second, most common type is rotary crushers. Their cost ranges from 1950 to 2450 thousand rubles. (62370-79730 US dollars in current terms). The principle of their action is the crushing of raw materials using a powerful rotary motor. Such crushers for crushed stone are unpretentious, but over time they still require maintenance, usually consisting in rewinding the wiring of an electric motor (rotor).
Centrifugal impact crusher worth 2550 thousand rubles. (US $ 115, 560 in current terms) is ideal for the concomitant (or main) production of fine-grained gravel in accordance with GOST 3344-83 “Slag crushed stone and sand for road construction. Technical conditions. "
It can be used as additional equipment designed specifically for small gravel, which is of great interest to manufacturers of asphalt and high-quality concrete. Of course, with the help of such a crusher, it is possible to produce larger crushed stone, but it is simply irrational to use it this way - it was initially envisaged precisely for the fine fraction.
The most expensive are cone and hydraulic cone crushers for crushed stone, whose operating principle is that the crushing of the material occurs in the layer between the movable and fixed cones.
The cost of such crushers, depending on the country of origin, is from 2, 300 to 4, 100 thousand rubles. ($ 73560-131130 in current terms). Such a high price is explained by their versatility: cone crushers are designed for the production of crushed stone of any fraction up to artificial sand.
In the case of mobile crushing plants, as already noted, the order of prices will be completely different: samples with a capacity of up to 60 tons per hour (that is, half as much as stationary) will cost from 7200 to 8800 thousand rubles. ($ 230, 280-281450 in current terms), depending on the country and the manufacturer.
The staff and profitability of the crushed stone business
The number of workers for stationary and mobile plants is slightly different: only two people serve a stationary crusher for crushed stone, one of them is a process engineer (specialty 130403 "Open cast mining", 270101 "Mechanical equipment and technological complexes of enterprises of building materials, products and structures ”or 270106“ Production of building materials, products and structures ”according to OKSO), which is also the master of the workshop, in which there can be more than one crusher; the second worker is an auxiliary worker, his job is only to control the crushing process - the supply of raw materials to the loading slots, unloading of storage bins (boxes) and to prevent interruptions and clogging of the finished workspace with the finished product. Thus, the number of auxiliary workers is equal to the number of crushers.
Mobile crushing complexes are serviced by two auxiliary workers under the guidance of a master (engineer of the above specialties); in addition, since they (crushers) are mounted on the chassis of trucks, a driver of the corresponding category will be required - however, one of the employees may also be the driver.
In addition, as already mentioned, in order to obtain block billets during the development of granite, basalt or limestone massifs, one will need their own or third-party blasting techniques (specialty in ОКСО –130408 “Blasting business”).
The profitability of the enterprise is difficult to calculate - after all, the cost of production of crushed stone consists, in fact, only of the cost of renting a development site, a wage fund for employees and the cost of electricity (and in the case of using mobile crushers - and fuels and lubricants). But you can call the minimum profitability - it is at the level of about 15%.
Such a low figure should not be embarrassing - firstly, this is the minimum indicator, and secondly, with an average production of 1000 tons per day, net profit for the month will be at least 3 million rubles. ($ 96, 400 in current terms) per month, which allows you to recoup the cost of equipment for the quarter, and in the worst case, six months.
Real numbers fluctuate depending on the region of sales, calibration, shape (the so-called cubic crushed stone is valued somewhat higher than other types), flakiness (degree of flatness), etc.
Average prices for granite and limestone rubble range between 640-700 rubles. per ton, the secondary (concrete cleavage) is about half the price, but its profitability is higher - it does not involve career development.
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Video about crushed stone production